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Submitted by dthaley on Thu, 10/12/2017 - 23:06

What is animal behavior?

Behavior is the internally coordinated responses ( action or inaction) of a whole living organism ( individual or group) to internal or external stimuli, excluding responses more easily understood as developmental changes.

Tinbergen’s four questions

  1. Causation-sensory organs, neural networks, physiology, bio chemical, etc..

  2. Development -imprinting, learning

  3. Survival value ( function)-current utility-about adaptiveness, survival reproduction

  4. Evolution-phylogenetic context in which the behaviors are found.

1. how does it work?     Types of questions : Proximate or How questions and                    

2. why does it work that way?              : Ultimate  or Why questions

3. what is the evolutionary history?

4. how does it develop in the individual?

What is communication?

The transmission of a signal from a sender to a receiver. In such a system the sender must on average benefit from the response of the recipient.

SENDER -------INFO---------> RECEIVER----decision /response------info----sender

Animal communication as a system.

Communication as a system needs a SENDER -------INFO---------> RECEIVER

      • Info coded into signal

      • Sent through the environment

      • Which can lead to distortion of message

      • Receiver has to to interpret

      • And decide to respond to sender

    • Communication can be interspecies or with other species

      • Within species

        • Baby bird begs--- gets fed

        • Bird displays

        • mating/ territory

      • Social

        • One eats the rest eat

      • Other species

        • Alarm calls

        • Tail wagging in white tailed deer

          • Alerts predators

  • Analyzing communication

    • Signals - packets of information that fit the definition of communication.

    • Message - what the signal encodes about the sender

    • Meaning - what the receiver “makes” of the message

    • Context - The “meaning” may vary depending on context and the identity of the receiver. We use context to infer the meaning.

  • UNITS OF COMMUNICATION

    • Frequency

      • kHz

      • Hz

        • Cycles per second

    • Time- a measure or duration of something

      • measured in

        • Seconds

        • Milliseconds

        • Nanoseconds

    • Amplitude-change over a single period

      • Decibels db

Five types of communication. 1-3 common 5-rare

  1. Visual -antlers, coloration

  2. Auditory - freq duration,variation

  3. Chemical- scents, hormones

  4. Tactile- touch

  5. Electrical

 

 

 

 

Classical ethology

1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Niko Tinbergen with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz

  • Early work done by Niko Tinbergen

    • Greylag geese

    • Fixed action pattern once started goes till completion

      • Many communication signals are made up of a FAP or a series of FAP’s.

        • Egg rolling in geese

          • Always has same basic form

          • Once initiated, goes to completion

          • Triggered (released) by sign stimulus of releaser

      • Konrad Lorenz Greylag Goose Triumph Display

        • Ethogram

          • A descriptive catalog of both innate and learned behavioral units of a species.

          • Creates context on information gathered

          • Allows to create an inference

        • Inference

          • process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.

        • Greylag Goose Triumph Display

          • FAP of six movements

    • FAP Both innate and plastic

      • behaviors and displays

        • may have both

          • innate component

          • learned component.

      • result is individual variation

  • David Lack-releasers

    • European Robins

      • Placed stuffed birds

        • Territories of other birds

      • Male breast coloration (orange and white) contrast

        • Triggers the response (behavior)

  •  

 

 

  • Niko Tinbergen Ethogram

    • Herring and black gulls

      • General principles

        • Males arrive first

          • Claim territory

      • Behavior categories

        • Parental care

        • Territory

        • Mating

      • Calls

        • Long call- 1st line of defense

        • Mew

        • Kekkek

        • Yeow

      • Behaviors

        • Mating

          • Male starts head tossing

          • mounts

        • Egglaying

          • Preference

            • Choking display

          • Parental care

        • Red spot

          • Visual cue for food

        • Chicks Begging

          • Continued through adulthood

  • WHAT is SOUND

    • Measurable pressure waves traveling through a medium

 

  • What can be measured from sound

    • Amp

      • Sound energy

    • Freq

      • Interval between sound waves

  • Measuring the real world is never real!

  • Scientific instruments have limitations and can distort what is being measured.

  • Transduction of Sound Energy to electrical

    • Dynamic microphone -possible distortion

      • Sound energy transduced to mechanical energy and then into an electric current

      • Cone structure responds to sound waves

      • Metal coils respond to pressure

      • Create electrical signal

    • Time domain

      • Pressure y axis

      • Time x axis

    • Frequency Domain

        • Amp y axis

      • Frequency x axis

  • Recording gear

    • Microphones parabolic

      • Good gains

      • Low frequency response

    • Shotgun microphones

      • Low gains

      • Better low frequency detection

    • Both to digital recording

  • Analog to digital conversations

    • continuous stream of electrical current is converted into a story of zeros and ones

    • ADC analog to digital converter

      • grab sample of continuous current and converts it into a binary number

    • sampling must be done enough 2 times the frequency of the sample

    • sample rate

      • time interval between samples

    • sample resolution

      • gradients of amplitude

  • Spectrum View

    • take points analyze to make frequencies

    • slice of time to look at frequency

  • sonogram View

    • spectrogram flipped on side

    • dark equals loud increase frequency

    • light equals soft decrease frequency

  • can measure

    • time domain

      • pressure over time

    • Frequency  domain

  • Animal production/ perception of communication signals

  •  Umwelt

    • animals don't see the world like humans

    • Own world view    

  • Signals for Survival

    • Signals are glue of social interactions

    • • There are few displays, but they are used in multiple contexts and therefore have multiple messages and meanings.

    • • Signals are innate fixed action patterns(FAPʼs), but need practice to use them correctly.

    • • Closely related species use similar signals because signals evolved in a common ancestor.

  • Production -visual

  • feathers are highly evolved scales

    • Colors pigment

      • Melanins

      • Carotenoids

      • Porphyrins

      • Pterins reddish colors in lizards

    • Melanins occur as granules of color

        • both in the skin and feathers of birds

        • Add strength to feathers

        • color is like

          • dark is black to reddish brown to pale yellow

      • Carotenoids

        • produced by plants

          • acquired by eating plants or by eating something that has eaten the plant

        • Can interact with melanin to produce

        • colors is like all of green yellow

      • Porphyrins

        • Modify Amino acids

        • fluorescence under ultraviolet light

        • Pink brown red green

    • Color structure

      • Refraction of incident light

      • by the microscopic structure of the feathers

    • Scattered light

      • via tiny air pockets

      • the refracts light

        • create Blues

  • Production -Display

    • Ritualized

      • certain movements of the body

      • fixed action patterns

    • Great-crested Grebe

      • Penguin display

        • seaweed dance

      • ritualized ontogenetic

    • Human facial expressions

      • 19 muscles

      • coded for emotional expression

      • universally recognized

    • Chimpanzee facial expressions

      • 66 distinct gestures with hands

      •  24 gestures

        • between chimps and gorillas

  • Mechanisms -vision

    • Eye designs different

    • photoreceptors similar

    • cones for color

    • Rod's dim lighting

    •  rods cones modified neurons

    • biochemical component that relay the signal

    •  Opsin

      • protein coded by jeans

      • shape of options

      • dictating wavelength of light detected

    • mutant Opsin

      • Can result in ability to see different frequencies of light

    • Mice can see in UV

    • some species of birds can see in UV

  • mechanisms of sound

    • Frequency can vary due to temperature

    • Timberdoodle  woodcock

      • eat earthworms big beak

      • makes noise with wings

        • modified three primary feathers

    • Manakins

      • fruit eaters

      • males form leks

      • can make Sonic Boom

      • by moving way too fast

    • Crested pigeon

      • by angle and speed. Not Feather form

    • Hummingbird flight sound

      • created by wings

      • Position of feathers

    • Anna's Hummingbird

      • Remove feathers are R4

      • Change frequency

  • mechanisms of sound

    • Two voice theory

      • MTM vibrated to produce sound

      • They both were functionally independent

      • Sole source of any modifications

        • Evidence from sonograms

    • Avian syrinx

      • Equivalent to vocal cords

      • Vocal coupled with the respiratory tract

        • End tables organism two separately use both sides

        • creates complexity and variability in each song

        • allows for plasticity of certain  songs

      • Catbird uses both sides

        • sings 2 songs

      • Thrushes-  Robbins

        •  sing with two sides

    • resonance and vocal filtering

      • soft tissue in trachea

      • soft palate

      • Teeth

      • Speak

    • song range in Sparrows

      • 2 kilohertz to 10 kilohertz

        • small animal high frequency

      • human 0.8 kilohertz to 1.1 kilohertz

        • big animals low-frequency

    • performance of song

      • high performance sound

        • large bandwidth

      • low performance sound

        • narrow bandwidth

      • Tril rates

        • can be used by birds

        • to determine made 2 arrivals

        • fast tril rate high performance

        • slow Tril rate low performance

  • mechanisms of vertebrate hearing

    • ear lobe focuses sound II auditory canal

    • tympanic membrane

      • moves according to frequency of sound

      • 15 times larger than ear ossicles

      • distance moves

        • according to energy or pressure

    • ear ossicles

      • staples Anvil Oval window

        • amplify by 22 x

      • Cochlea

        • mechanical energy to hydraulic energy

          • back to mechanical energy then to neural impulse

        •  

      • cochlear duct fluid filled

          • move that same frequency as oval window

          • same as eardrum

          • Same As sound

        • basilar membrane

          • movies with frequency of sound

        •  

        • tectorial membrane

          • doesn't move

            •  hair receptors

          • number of hair receptors that move

            • depends on how much energy in sound

    • How to encode frequency of a sound

      • basilar membrane resonates

      • resonates to 2 different frequencies along its length

        • base high frequency 20000 Hertz

        • Apex low frequency 20 Hertz

        • middle middle frequency

      • basal membrane

        • basil Larry fibers create stiffness within membrane

      • genetics dictate basilar membrane fibers

  • Avian Ear

    • Hearing and Discrimination

      • – Song selective neurons -

      • discrimination of species specific signals

      • – Responses to individual syllables

    • Two major pathways

      • Motor: HVC, RA, nXIIts >>

      • Syrinx Learning: X, LMAN, DLM

  • Getting the message across Channel partitioning

    • sender----encoded→ message decipher

      • Message has to stand out

    • Steller's Jays

      • graded signal

        • can be ramped up

        • or ramp down

      • the muscles attach to Crest can be lifted up or down

    • Tungara frog

      • Graded signals Chuck wine

        • other males

      • Chuck's can be detected by predators

      • Females attracted to Chucks

    • acoustic  encoding

      • Length

      • Frequency

      • Sequence of notes

      • Different  song types

      • Different  sequences of song types

    • chemical and coding

      • order image

        • Tarsals

        • Metatarsals

        • Forehead

        • Tail

        • Urine

    • Deciphering signals

      • Look for signals in contacts

      • infer meaning from

    • Messages about Self

      • species identification

      • Kinship

        • Beaver send Mounds

          • Territorial

          • all same family group

        • black-capped chickadee

          • chickadee calls distinguish between

          • groups can learn different chickadee songs

    • Dominance badge

      • Harris Sparrow

        • black on chest

        • the most Black Dominate

        • if paint chest dark black

          • Instantly.

          • Dominant

        • socially seen as dominant

        • individuals testosterone increases

      • Red Deer

        • Roaring

          • males defend harem

          • By Roaring

            • roaring and code status

  • general rule

    • larger  the animal

    • the lower the frequency that can be created

  • messages about self

      • species identity

      • individuals in  group

      • Kinship

      • group membership

      • Competitiveness

      • Motivational state

    • Aposematic colors

  • Long-tailed widowbird

    • males with longest Tails most mates

    • longtail handicap

  • Springbok

    • Stotting

      • jumping up showing stripes

      • shows predator ability

  • Bee language

    •  Angle to  food

    • distance to food

    • in relationship to the Sun

 

 

    

 

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