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Neurobio Study Guide Exam 2

Submitted by samihaalam on Tue, 11/14/2017 - 12:23

 

How cortical area 6 differs from area 4 in generating movement:

  • area 6 = higher motor area 
    • planning
    • premotor cortex (PMA and supplementary motor area (SMA))
    • SMA and PMA similar functions, correspond to different groups of muscles 
    • mirror neurons!!
      • only imagine neurons, some neurons in area 6 fire!
      • maybe to understand actions of others
      • very specific movement processes
  • area 4 = lower motor cortex 
    • executing
    • lower intensity of current to elicit movement 
    • homunculus for area 4 
      • can make one! (like how did for somatosensory thing?)
      • finer motor control is overrepresented -  hands, face, tongue, swallowing huge 
      • if stimulate something in this brain region, person would twitch! 
  • study with monkey! as the monkey knows it's gonna press the button, just waiting for the light to go on - area 6 is activated; after light goes on, right before/as monkey is hitting the button - area 4 is activated!!

Basal Ganglia Motor Loop!

  • info goes from prefrontal cortex and sensory cortex → basal ganglia → VLo → areas 6 & 4 → {corticospinal tract or red nucles → lateral vs reticular nuclei or uperior and vestibular nuclei → ventromedial pathways }→ spinal cord
  • very important loop! 
  • basal ganglia structures:
    • basal ganglia = where input for VL (called VLo) arises
    • VL nucleus of thalamus 
    • striatum
      • cauadate nucleus 
      • putamen
      • target of the cortical input to basal ganglia - where info from cortex comes into basal ganglia 
    • globus pallidus
      • source of the output to the thalamus
    • subtalamic nucleus
    • substantia nigra
      • midbrain structure also in the basal ganglia of the forebrain
  • pathway = cortex (cerebral cortex, spec. frontal, prefrontal, and parietal) → basal ganglia and thalamus → cortex ( spec. supplementary motor area)
  • imprortant for selection and initiation of willed movements
  • basal ganglia focuses activate onto spec areas of motor cortex 

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