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Vernalization-Triggered Intragenic Chromatin Loop Formation by Long Noncoding RNAs.

Submitted by oelbetanony on Tue, 11/07/2017 - 18:26

In this paper the authors wanted to study the non coding RNAs that are involved in Vernalization. One known group of non coding RNAs are called COLDAIR. The authors started by using RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) to examine the dynamics of COLDAIR. Upon doing this the authors stumbled upon additional RNAs in the promotor region of FLC and named them COLDWRAP. Upon further observation they discovered that COLDWRAP is also expressed after prolonged cold exposure but unlike COLDAIR it stays expressed even after exposure to cold. It was also discovered that COLDWRAP plays a major role in forming an intragenic chromatin loop making COLDWRAP necessary for vernalization.

Further studies to build off of VAL1 induced silencing research paper

Submitted by oelbetanony on Tue, 11/07/2017 - 10:25

In "Arabidopsis transcriptional repressor VAL1 triggers Polycomb silencing at FLC during vernalization" the authors were able to conclude that VAL1 plays a major role in silencing FLC when the plant is exposed to the cold for a prolonged period of time. Specifically VAL1 achieves this by binding to the RY motifs in the FLC nucleation region. A second study to build off of this experiment is to further investigate COOLAIR and how those antisense transcripts play a role in the switch like properties that are initiated in the nucleation of the FLC. COOLAIR are antisense transcripts that are expressed when the plant is exposed to prolonged cold and help trigger the epigenic swith.

Williamson ether synthesis

Submitted by oelbetanony on Tue, 11/07/2017 - 10:17

2-naphthol reacted with the butyl iodide in basic controlled conditions and produced naphthyl ether in a 79.1% yield. The final product mass was 0.22 grams of butyl naphthyl ether and had a melting point of 29 - 30°C which indicates the product was reasonably pure, the RF values also show the difference in polarity of the starting materials thus separating them. The yield was pretty high in this experiment but could have been higher. One thing that could have helped the yield be higher is not using too much NaOH because that could deprotonate the ethanol and form ethoxides that act as nucleophiles and that uses up the butyl iodide causing lower yield. The identity and purity of the product was assessed.


rationale behind melonopsin study

Submitted by oelbetanony on Thu, 11/02/2017 - 23:30

The rationale behind the question is that they know there are a subset of Retinal ganglion cells in Humans and mice that express an opsin like protein called melonopsin, so they wanted to know if melonopsin is responsible for the photosensitivity found in mice who lack rods and cones. Further rationale for the question comes from the fact that they know that mice without eyes can’t reset their circadian clocks so they know that there is melonopsin in the eye and they want to know if it’s the melonopsin that is responsible for their ability to have non-image forming visual functions like resetting their circadian clocks even though they lack rods and cones.

methods part one

Submitted by oelbetanony on Thu, 11/02/2017 - 23:29

The study will be conducted in a relatively dark room with planarians confined within a petri dish throughout the whole experiment. The petri dish will be placed on a stand-like apparatus so that a light source may be placed underneath the petri dish. This will enable the light to reach the planarian’s photoreceptors, as they are positioned on the underside of their body. The light source will have a piece of duct tape with a small hole that is no bigger than the diameter of the bulb poked through it over the bulb in order for the light to be directed as a small, precise beam. This will allow the light to be directed to a specific region of the petri dish. In this way, planarians may be able to move to different regions of the petri dish in which they prefer. Filters will be attached to the bottom of the petri dish in order to obtain different light intensities that diffuse through the filters. 

Persuasive paragrpah

Submitted by oelbetanony on Thu, 11/02/2017 - 23:28

With the one vaccine available to save one breed of domestic dogs, it should be used to save an Australian Shepard female and its puppies.

 Australian shepards are the the perfect breed to save because of all the qualities they posses, veterinarian all over the world can testify to the Australian shepard's intelligence, Activeness, and awareness making them the best breed to save.

Theres no price that can be placed on the affect Australian shepards can have on their owners nor the happiness they bring to everyone who interacts with them. Anyone with heart can see why this breed of domestic dogs has to be saved.

Its a matter of common sense that Australian shepards should be the breed that receives the only vaccine. The facts speak for themselves, they have some of the higher life expectancies among domestic dogs and they are some of the most active dogs out there.   

Cyclohexane synthesis

Submitted by oelbetanony on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 17:31

The Purpose of this lab is to synthesize cyclohexane via an acid-catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexane with phosphoric acid. Then purifying the product using fractional distillation and anaylsis using chemical test and gas chromotogrphy. With those results we can read the paragraph and assess how pure our end sample turned out, we would also be able to calculare our percent yeild and get a theoretical percent yield and an experimental percent yield. 

Melonopsin research paper

Submitted by oelbetanony on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 17:22

First they made an antibody for melonopsin, then used the antibody to locate melonopsin. Once they identified the RGCs that contain melonopsin they then used lacZ to be able to see where exactly melonopsin is activated and projected from those RGCs and see if it was projected in the parts of the brain where circadian function is regulated. They used Lucifer yellow dye injected in the SCN and cross compared with melonopsin antibody to see if all RGC projecting to SCN are melonopsin positive. They also used light to see if these cells responded to it.

Kids with behavioral problems

Submitted by oelbetanony on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 17:19

I think its important to properly respond to kids with behavioral problems. Sometimes when you respond to those problems in the wrong way you can make the issue worse. I think its very important that in any environment where you have to deal with kids with behavioral problems that everyone there is properly trained to deal with these behavioral issues when they arise. I think patience is very important when dealing with these kids and to always understand that they might not always understand how they are acting. I certainly believe schools can do a better job in dealing with these kids. one thing schools can do to support these kids is helping and training teachers to recognize these problems before they escalate and equipping them with the tools to intervene and help the child properly. To reform the juvenile system we must focus less on the punishment and more on how to help these kids and heal the damage they have. Because if we keep treating them like criminals they will never be able to achieve their academic potential. I do not believe the current balance of punishment and rehabilitation nor fair or acceptable. rather than doing so much to punish them we should do more to help them improve.    


Karakuri legend

Submitted by oelbetanony on Fri, 10/20/2017 - 15:18

Figure 1.

In the first Row it shows GPA against hours slpet and it shows that it has a negative affect on males but no affect on females.

In the second Row it shows GPA againt hours studied and it shows that it has a positive affect on males and a much more significant positive affect on femles.

In the third row it shows hours studied against hours slept and it shows that it has a positive affect on females and not much of an affect on males.



Omar Elbetanony and Daniel Costa


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