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Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy notes

Submitted by jjaneiro on Wed, 09/27/2017 - 10:22

The cladogram begining with vertebrata and continues on to amniota. The first super class of vertebrates includes the Cyclostomata, which are round mouthed animals that do not have jaws. This class includes orders Petromyzonoformes, common name lamprey, and Myxiniforms, common name hagfish. Next on the cladogram is the Gnathostomata, or the true-jawed fish. This class includes Chondricthyes, cartliagenous fish, and then Osteichthys, bony fish. The order of Osteichthys includes order Actinopterygian, or ray-fin fish species. In this group there are approximately 35,000 different species. Their next relatives are the Sarcopterygians, or lobe-fin fishes. Another clade of lobe-fin fishes are the class Rhipidistia. This clade includes subgroups Dipnomorpha and Tetrapodomorpha, or the lung fishes and the tetrapods. After the Tetrapoda on the cladogram is the Lissamphibia and the Amniotes. The Lissamphibia group includes all modern amphibians. Amniota includes all reptiles, birds and mammals that lay eggs. 

Methods Draft

Submitted by jjaneiro on Mon, 09/25/2017 - 22:02

I walked down the path beside the campus pond and stopped at the stone benches underneath the Golden Weeping Willow. I stood diagonal across from the library in the middle of the path and took a photo of the branches of the tree. The pond fountain, the student union, and the library were visible in the background of the photo, with no people in the shot. The chapel was not visible in this first photograph. After taking this photo, I walked north 15 paces and turned so I was directly across from the chapel. Here, I titled my camera up at a 165 degree angle, up into the branches of the tree, and took a second picture. In this photograph the campus pond is not visible at all. The bottom of the frame is just below the base of the chapel. Again, there are no pedestrians in the photograph. The last photograph I took was of the whole organism. I turned toward the ILC and walked 45 steps. I then turned around, facing the tree, and with only the steeple of the chapel in the frame of the shot, at eye-level, I took the third photograph. All of the branches, as well as the very top of the tree, are visible. There were, again, no people in the background of the photo. The path is visible, as well as the campus pond and the corner of the FAC with the concrete construction happening. None of the photographs I took used zoom or filters. The weather was cloudy and there was not much natural light. It was windy that day, so in the pictures the branches and leaves are swaying. 

Methods Introduction, take 2

Submitted by jjaneiro on Thu, 09/21/2017 - 21:47

The Golden Weeping Willow, botanical name Salix alba "Tristis" is a large, prominent tree on the UMass campus by the pond. This tree is native to Eurasia, transplant well, and can grow to more than 40 feet. It needs full sun and prefers moist, well-drained soil; it is intolerant of drought conditions. This tree is highly susceptible to ice damage, making it fragile in New England winters.

I was originally going to choose the Eastern Gray squirrel as the species for my Methods project, but I think that would be too difficult to reproduce. The Golden Willow, unlike a squirrel, will not move or be too difficult to find. The conditions that need to be considered and controlled are time of day, spot from where the photo is taken, the type of weather on the day the photographs are taken. Also, the amount sun needs to be relatively the same. It will also be important to keep in mind the background, if there are people in the background of one photo and not the other, there will be inconsistency between the final products. 



Figure explanation

Submitted by jjaneiro on Thu, 09/21/2017 - 20:39

This multipanel figure shows conclusive results from the DNA analysis of the conserved sequences and the lac Z expression. These figures are not only demonstrative of the results, they clearly illustrate the topics discussed in the paper. There is a combination of photos of lac Z expression and a graphic representation of the enhancers involved in the genes investigated by the researchers. The graphics are well organized which makes the figures easy to understand without reading the written description. They begin by showing where in the sequence the conservation of genes are. After that, they show lac Z expressed images and areas with the enhancers that demonstrate where the conserved DNA sequences are. This multifigure panel demonstrates quality because it clearly and easily demonstrates the results of the study. The figures are organized in a way that allows for a flow of information through the order of the results described in the results section. 

Introduction Methods project draft

Submitted by jjaneiro on Mon, 09/18/2017 - 20:35

        Certain species of animals at UMass are notorious for their interactions with humans. These species include the ducks in the campus pond and the campus squirrels. The Eastern Gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis, is an abundant species here at UMass, as well as throughout the eastern United States. I will be studying the Eastern Gray squirrel. I chose this organism because it is easy to find around campus, and they are interesting and quirky creatures. Replicating the methods of my project should be easy and entertaining. I am not sure yet what factors I am going to control in my methods, but I am going to continue thinking about it. It will probably be difficult trying to control a variable that involves a wild animal. This species is polygynandrous, meaning that they have multiple different mating partners during a breeding season. Females typically have 1-4 offspring per litter, and the species typically breeds twice a year. The Eastern Gray squirrel has an average life expectancy of 12 years in the wild due to predation and hazards of human impact on their environment.

Daily tasks in-class exercise

Submitted by jjaneiro on Fri, 09/15/2017 - 15:12

During the day, I used different modes of transportation. I walked to the bathroom when I got out of bed at 7:08 in the morning. A few minutes after that, I walked to the kitchen, and then walked to my bedroom. I walked back and forth through different rooms in my apartment a total of eight times, before walking out the door and to campus at 8:00 am. After walking out of my class when it ended at 9:45 am, I walked to the library, where I took an elevator up to the 5th floor. From the elevator, I walked to a desk, sat down, and began to do homework. When I left the library around 11:30 am, I walked to the Arnold House bus stop, where I met my roommate and walked home. Once I was at home, I got into my roommates car and she drove me to the post office. After I had picked up my package, we rode back to our apartment. From my apartment, after lunch, I walked to the bus stop around 2:00pm. From this stop I boarded the bus, and rode it to the ILC. After my last class ended at 3:45, I walked back home to my apartment. Later, I rode in the car again with my sister to the gym. My modes of transportation on this day were walking, riding in a car, elevator and on the bus. 

    On Thursday, I spent time in my day doing sedentary activities. I began my day by lying in my bed waking up after my alarm went off. Then, I spent time at 8:30am and 2:30pm sitting in class. I also was sedentary while riding in the car and on the bus. I was also sedentary while eating breakfast, lunch and dinner, and while studying in the library. At night after returning from the gym, I was sedentary while doing my homework on my bed at 9:30pm. I was again still when I laid down to go to sleep at 10:20pm. There were many periods throughout the day when I was not mobile. 

    A good portion of my day was spent in preparatory activities. In the morning I prepared my breakfast at 7:30am. After I ate breakfast, I went into my bedroom and prepared what clothes I was going to wear that day by picking items out of my closet and drawers. After I got dressed, I had to prepare which school materials I was going to bring to class that day. I had to find and pack my notebooks, textbooks, and computer. Once this was done, I had to prepare my lunch for the day. I made a sandwich and pulled a granola bar from the kitchen cabinet at 7:45am. Once I was at the library at 9:50am, I had to prepare to do my homework for each of my subjects by taking out the necessary notebooks, textbooks and my computer. I did this same preparatory task at night when I resumed doing my homework.

Larva observation 9/8/17

Submitted by jjaneiro on Thu, 09/14/2017 - 10:20

The larva I observed is approximately two centimeters long at rest; It is capable of shrinking and expanding its body to a considerable degree in both directions, varying in length from one centimeter when condensed, to approximately two and a half centimeters when expanded. Its body is segmented, beige in color, with a dark brown head region and little black hairs covering the dorsal side of its body. This organism has sixteen black feet, in eight pairs with two feet on each body segment. The pads of its feet seem capable of suction; they are able to hold the slivers of wood in the bottom of the cup on its feet when lifted in the air and then drop them.  When first placed in the specimen cup, the larva was actively trying to escape, crawling around the bottom of the cup and up on the sides. After taking the larva out of the cup with no enclosed sides around it, the organism raised its torso to search for any additional surfaces that might be above it to grab on to. Finding none, it put its torso back down and began to crawl. The trunk of its body moves in a wave-like motion, using the very end of its body as support for pushing off of surfaces. The larva is also able to curl its head and posterior end together to form a circle with its body. 

Rough draft in-class activity 9/8/17

Submitted by jjaneiro on Fri, 09/08/2017 - 15:23

This larva is approximately 2 centimeters long. It is beige in color on its body with a dark brown head region. It has 16 feet. It is very active, trying to crawl all around the bottom of the specimen cup. It moves its body in a wave-like motion, using the very end of its body as support for pushing off of surfaces. It is capable of shrinking and expanding its body to a considerable degree. The bottom of its feet are black and it has small hairs covering the dorsal side of its body. It can lift a small chip o fwood with its head. Its body is sectioned, with striations separating them, but not in the way other insects, like ants, bodies are sectioned. When left on a flat surface, the larva raises its torso to look for an additional surface to grab. Finding none, it puts its torso back down and begins to crawl. It can expand from 1 to 2 centimeters. The pads of its feet seem sticky, as the slivers of wood in the cup with it are sticking to its feet. It is capable of curling its head and tail together to form a circle with its body.



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