Data examining the relationships between hours slept and GPA for students living on the island Enies Lobby. Scatterplots showed low correlation, however the line graphs display a similarity between Male and Female students, on top of a trend of more hours of sleep leading to a higher GPA.
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This experiment aims to demonstrate principles of conditioning by blowing a puff of air at a planarian and measuring their response, which consist of a contraction followed by an extension. The methods include puffing 30 seconds of air every 45 seconds at the planarian 50 times. The planarians response will take about 1 second. You must place the planarian into a conditioning trough and let it adapt to the environment for 5-10 minutes. Pull back the syringe to 30 cc and blow a puff of air onto the head region of the planarian. Use a timer to measure the time between air puffs and record the data using (+) if the animal contracted, (-) if the animal did not, and (T) if the animal turned and swan the other direction. As a second experiment, you condition the planarians to minimize the amount of times they turn in the opposite direction by continuing the number of air puffs until the turning decreases.
The second article describes planarians and their habits. They are slimy flatworms that prey on earthworms, slugs, snails and soil arthropods. The slimy appearance is from mucus secretion that helps them keep their body moist as well as movement. They prefer the dark, cool temperatures and require high humidity because they die quickly if it looses 45% of its body moisture. This is why with the rain come land planarians because it increases the humidity and allows planarians to come to the soil.
Faber B. With the Rain Come Land Planaria. 2015 Nov 30 [accessed 2017 Oct 20]. http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=19531
Can Planaria Learn. [accessed 2017 Oct 20]. https://biology.mit.edu/sites/default/files/Learning%20and%20Memory.pdf
The abuse of prescription medications is thought to be a relatively prevalent phenomenon amongst younger adults, specifically those enrolled in college or university. A 2006-2007 survey by the NSDUH concluded that college students between the ages of 18-22 were at least twice as likely as non-college students of the same age to abuse Adderall, a stimulant used in the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy; this drug is oftentimes abused as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. The NSDUH conducted a follow up study in 2013 in which over 55,000 Americans were surveyed with regards to whether they had ever taken Adderall without a prescription. Participants between the ages of 18 and 22 were also asked to indicate whether they were enrolled in college. It was hypothesized that the results of this study would support the previous survey that showed college students were much more likely than non-college students of the same age to abuse Adderall. The results of this study suggested, however, that although younger adults of ages 18 to 22 were generally the most likely to abuse Adderall between all age groups, the difference between college and non-college students in this age range was not as significant. College students were only 1.3 times as likely to have taken Adderall without a prescription, which does not support the hypothesis that a tremendous difference would be observed. This study thus concludes that age, rather than college or university status, is the primary factor correlated with Adderall abuse, and that younger adults in general were the most likely to have taken the drug without a prescription.
For this experiment we used sucrose as our inhibitor. We repeated the first experiment keeping the concentrations the same by lowering the volume of the buffer from 3.5 mL to 3 mL. We added five concentrations of the ONPG, 33.2 mM, 26.56 mM, 19.92 mM, 13.28 mM, 6.64 mM, to five different tubes along with .5 mL of sucrose and .5 mL of the enzyme. Once the enzyme was added we timed each reaction at each different concentration for 100 seconds and stopped each reaction by adding .5 mL of sodium carbonate. After taking the spectrophotometer reading which measured its absorbance, we determined the rate of the reaction and graphed our data.
Many factors contributed to the differences between the original and replicate figures. First, it was not stated in the methods the placement of each photo in the multi panel figure. Nor were the order and font size of the letters stated. Also, due to the life cycles of plants, it is possible that flowers could have died or been altered by environmental factors such as rain, wind, or pollinators. In addition, the photos could have been taken with different devices and at different times of the day resulting in less quality and different coloration of the photos. The methods give an approximation of how close to hold the camera away from the flower; however, the differences in approximation could result in slight alterations in the photos. The temperature, wind, and climate can cause differences in the appearance of flowers. Since the photos were taken weeks apart it is possible that factors such as human interaction, animal interaction, weather and the own plant’s life cycle could cause changes of a flower resulting in the inability to replicate an exact photo.
Optogenetics is a technique that allows scientists to control the brain’s nerve cells by using light. Since neurons implement behavior and emotions, deficits in these can trigger many brain disorders such as Parkinson’s which deals with haywire processing in certain motor-control circuits in the brain and narcolepsy which is believed to deal with brief deletions of cellular activity. This technique works by putting molecules into neurons that change light into electricity. When light is present, it is converted into electricity and the cells turn on or off.
Light sensitive proteins called opsins respond to light in the blue-green range. In recent rat studies, an opsin called channelrhodopsin-2 only fired in response to blue light. In other studies, green light was used to inhibit or turn off certain dopamine releasing neurons. A newly discovered opsin is sensitive to red light and allows researchers to control the activity of neurons in two populations. This opsin is called Chrimson and it is currently trying to be modified to respond to light in the infrared range.
Based on the melting point gather of the impure and pure compound of unknown 3, it was concluded that the compound is acetalinide. The impure melting point was 101-111 degrees C and the pure melting point was 111-113 C. The impure compound melted over a wider range and at a lower temperature. This observation could conclude that the unknown solid contained impurities. The impurity disrupts the formation of regular arrangement of particles (lattice), making it weaker and easier to break. Thus, less energy is required to break regular lattice leading to a lower melting point. In contrast, the smaller range of melting temperature the higher the purity of the compounds. Recrystallization was used to purify organic compounds that are solid at room temperature and was used to remove impurities from both phthalic acid and the unknown. The initial mass taken of phthalic acid was 326 mg and the mass recovered was 263 mg resulting in an 80.7 % recovery. In order to recrystallize the unknown, various solubility tests were performed and concluded that toluene was the best solvent because it produced the highest recovery and at the most well-formed crystals. The unknown was insoluble at room temperature and soluble when heated which concludes it to be a good solvent. The initial mass taken of the unknown was 246 mg and the mass recovered after recrystallization was 190 mg resulting in a 77.2% recovery. Based on the high percent recovery, it is concluded that recrystallization was successful and accurate.
Chemical reactions have thermodynamic aspects; they are all energy transformations. In thermodynamics, Gibbs free energy is measure of useful energy in a transformation. The change in the Gibbs free energy of the system that occurs during a reaction is therefore equal to the change in the enthalpy of the system minus the change in the product of the temperature times the entropy of the system. This indicates whether a reaction releases or requires energy. If a reaction releases energy, it is a negative exergonic reaction and is considered spontaneous or favorable. If a reaction requires energy, it is a positive endergonic reaction and is considered nonspontaneous or not favorable.
Picture A seems to be the only picture that’s different. It was taken at a different angle, a lot closer, and is actually a completely different mushroom overall. An inference was that the methods section did not give enough detail on where exactly the original picture was taken
Picture B would be easy to replicate if they searched the same address on Maps, obviously the same location will pop up. If you use the same app and type in the same address, the same exact picture will pop up.
It think Picture C was taken from the internet for 2 reason. 1) it is an aerial picture and regardless doesn’t seem that easy to take. And 2) the pictures are exactly the same.
Picture D could either be from the internet or the original methods could have given exact information to replicate the same graph by walking the person through the exact procedure.
Picture E is definitely the same picture because not only is it from the same angle but even the clouds in the background are the exact same, which make me make an inference that they were found on the internet
The main purpose of the TLC experiment was to determine the components of the 2 unknown analgesics on the TLC places. The distance travelled by the individual components was used to calculate the Rf values. On plate 1, the unknown analgesic 1 (Excedrin) separated into 3 dots. The first dot aligned with caffeine, the second dot aligned with aspirin and the third dot aligned with acetaminophen. One can conclude that when the dots align, both substances contain the same compounds. The closeness of the RF values of each aligned dot confirms that Excedrin contains aspirin, acetaminophen and caffeine. On the plate 2, the unknown analgesic 2 (Anacin) aligns with the caffeine and aspirin, but not with acetaminophen; therefore, one can conclude that Anacin contains both caffeine and aspirin. Plate 3 confirms that both Excedrin and Anacin contain caffeine, as they all align and have the same RF values. Also on plate 3, one can observe Excedrin separating into 3 dots and Anacin separating into 2, again confirming the components within each analgesic. In part 2 of the lab we observed the solvent effect on the TLC plate. In ethyl acetate, the solvent had too high of a polarity and therefore all the components in the mixture moved along with the solvent, thus, illustrating the 3 dots almost touching the solvent front. Therefore, the Rf values will be too large as seen in the results section (an effective solvent gives the FR value in the range of 0.3-0.7). We can also conclude that the solvent 95% hexane and 5% t-butyl methyl ether has a good polarity due to the range of RF values for the compounds. As observed in lab and through experiments the higher the polarity the lower the RF value and vice versa.