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Final paragraph of intro

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Submitted by dthaley on Mon, 12/11/2017 - 15:06

The primary aim of this research is to map phenotypic traits onto a phylogeny created by John Iverson which he created using the molecular markers in the DNA of roughly forty species of mud turtles. Utilizing the phylogeny of the genetic variation with physical traits mapped on it the group's goal is to try an answer a few simple questions. How does habitat correlate to the physical characteristics of mud turtles? How do the traits correspond to species recognition and sexual selection? The use of John Iverson's molecular phylogeny is the most recent and complete genetic phylogeny done on this family of turtles to date. The species were tested and compared using three regions of the mitochondrial genome, the entire cytochrome b sequence, and the partial 12S and 16S rRNA genes. Also, three nuclear fragments of the C-mos, RAG1, and RAG2 genes (Iverson et al. 2013). Other genetic phylogenies have been created using similar genetic markers, yet no other has been compiled using the numerous amount of genetic markers like the one Iverson created.



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Submitted by dthaley on Mon, 12/11/2017 - 15:05

The purpose of this study is to identify relationships between the habitat and phenotypic characteristics in the family of turtles called Kinosternidae and if these traits researched correlate to any varying level of interspecies communication. Nine cladograms were created based on nine unique characteristics of the group Kinosternidae; the phenotypic traits mapped on the phylogenies that were created using genetic variation among the species. Direct trends observed between the carapace shape and the current of the water the turtle inhabited when the two phylogenies were analyzed side by side. The trait of distinct head coloration seems to have a prevalence among newly destinated subspecies which their habitats overlap as well as, a more northern relative which the character first appeared. Specific trends of phenotypic characteristics seem to diverge with the habitat of the species and particularly how much the territories overlap, possibly lending itself to speciation events. Within the construction of these phylogenies, we were able to correlate the habitat of these turtles to their phenotypic characteristics and possible ways that these turtles can communicate with one another through physical markings. The phylogeny also depicts when some of these traits evolved or were inherited, the species where the divergence occurred, and when and which characteristics were lost and gained. The family of Kinosternidae has an extensive, and varied habitat, which suggests a highly mutable genetic lineage within this particular group of turtles.


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Submitted by dthaley on Fri, 12/08/2017 - 10:20

The purpose of the experiment is to observe light emitted through a diffraction grating and to measure the distance from the center point to calculate sin theta, wavelength, and frequency. One part of the experiment is to view the continuous spectrum with a diffraction grating. This will produce a virtual image of the colors of the rainbow. Measurements taken will be used to find the sin and the wavelength. 
The second part of the lab used a diffraction grating to create atomic line spectrums from lamps filled with different gases: hydrogen, mercury, and sodium. This type of spectrum is created when the molecules in the gases are exposed to energy which can produce heat, this added energy jumps the electron into a higher orbital, and when it begins to fall back to the lower level, the electron releases a photon. This photon has a distinct wavelength and frequency specific to the element that it was released from. From the emission spectra wavelengths, sin  and frequencies were calculated from the measurements collected. The formula to find sin  was a(avg)[b+a(avg)]2. The formula to find the wavelength 
dsinθ = mλ, and using the Rydberg equation 1/ λ = 0.01097(1/ nf2 - 1/ni2). Frequency was found using c= f .

Pavlovian conditioning models

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Submitted by dthaley on Fri, 12/08/2017 - 10:19

The learning capabilities of planarian flatworm were evaluated by applying first-order and second-order Pavlovian conditioning models. In the lower-order Pavlovian conditioning, learning is gained by matching a conditioned stimulus (CS) with a primary driving unconditioned stimulus (US) of an electrical shock. In higher-order Pavlovian conditioning, the planarian is exposed to a sensory stimulus as preconditioning, the blue light. The CS will be paired with a shock that has a motivational value that is acquired rather than intrinsic.


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Submitted by dthaley on Fri, 12/01/2017 - 10:11

“ An ethnography provides a holistic account of a culture, including information about history, environment, language, economics, politics, kinship, art, religion, gender roles, substance practices, and many other aspects of the culture” (Cormier and Jones, 2014). An effective ethnography is achieved by participant observation and becoming an adaptive part of the culture but, still being an outsider. All the while compiling data, for the second step. Which is to write about the experience within that culture, not just descriptions of events, also.



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Submitted by dthaley on Fri, 12/01/2017 - 10:04

The current in a series circuit is the same through each of the components, and the voltage across the circuit is the sum of the voltages across each element. In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of the components is the same also, but the total current is the sum of the currents in each segment. Thus, as far as power is concerned a circuit set up in parallel will consume more power than that of a circuit set up in a series.


Methodology of trait coding

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Submitted by dthaley on Mon, 11/27/2017 - 08:28

As a group, we discussed the various ways a bird's plumage can be used as a form of communication to other birds. From the coloration, the pattern of coloration, and where on a bird would these markings be the most visible and most effective. Through looking at the specimens available in the classroom and the sources provided. The group came up with plumage characteristics that were deemed important in both migratory birds and non-migratory birds.



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Submitted by dthaley on Mon, 11/27/2017 - 08:27

Figure 1.2 depicts the phylogenetic tree highlighting breast and throat coloration. The phenotype of bi-colored throat and chest evolved three times, the trait was secondarily lost twice. The tree also depicts whether the bi-colors are bright or not bright(black, brown, or white). The phylogenetic tree shows the dull colors evolved first with the bright colors as evolving secondary to the dull colors, which occurs twice.The trait of bicolored was lost three times and permanently lost towards the lower part of the tree. I think these plumage traits are pivotal in territorial displays and for mating.


Electric field

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Submitted by dthaley on Wed, 11/08/2017 - 14:29

The visualization of the result on the graph paper from mapping of the electric field, were a useful tool in understanding the movements and locations of the electric field that was created on the board. This illustrated that field lines are required to start on a positive terminal and end on a negative terminal. Though plotting the varying equipotential lines of different volts, I noticed that the number field lines was directly proportional to the magnitude of volts being transmitted to the positive contact point. The equipotential lines are always perpendicular to the field lines and the electrical potential of the equipotential lines are always constant.



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Submitted by dthaley on Wed, 11/08/2017 - 14:26

Human culture perhaps is one thing that has evolved and changed the most since the arrival of the modern humans onto this planet. Culture is what helps people define themselves, through belief systems, symbols, and behaviors. Which can change through social pressures and acceptance of new social norms. Ethnocentrism seems to apply to individuals or groups that hold invalid notions about other groups of people, which is something very difficult to set out in change. These notions are beliefs whether accurate or not are held to a subjective mindframe. Cultural relativism must straddle the line and cannot label a custom within a culture positive or negative, it must be seen through the lens of objectivity.


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