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Electric field

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Submitted by dthaley on Wed, 11/08/2017 - 14:29

The visualization of the result on the graph paper from mapping of the electric field, were a useful tool in understanding the movements and locations of the electric field that was created on the board. This illustrated that field lines are required to start on a positive terminal and end on a negative terminal. Though plotting the varying equipotential lines of different volts, I noticed that the number field lines was directly proportional to the magnitude of volts being transmitted to the positive contact point. The equipotential lines are always perpendicular to the field lines and the electrical potential of the equipotential lines are always constant.

 

Anthro

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Submitted by dthaley on Wed, 11/08/2017 - 14:26

Human culture perhaps is one thing that has evolved and changed the most since the arrival of the modern humans onto this planet. Culture is what helps people define themselves, through belief systems, symbols, and behaviors. Which can change through social pressures and acceptance of new social norms. Ethnocentrism seems to apply to individuals or groups that hold invalid notions about other groups of people, which is something very difficult to set out in change. These notions are beliefs whether accurate or not are held to a subjective mindframe. Cultural relativism must straddle the line and cannot label a custom within a culture positive or negative, it must be seen through the lens of objectivity.

Anthro

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Submitted by dthaley on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 08:48

At looking at the two concepts; culture relativism and enthrocentrism, one must look at what the definition of culture is. “Culture has been defined in numerous ways over time, but can broadly be defined as the beliefs, behaviors, and symbols shared by members of a group acquired through social learning” (Cormier and Jones, 2014). The things that are learned through our culture beliefs, behaviors, and symbols aid us in navigating within our culture. These norms that we have become accustomed to within our culture have a deep seeded effect on our mental capacities. This is proven when someone travels to a different country or is placed in a different cultural setting, “usually go through a period of cultural shock, which involves depression and frustration” (Cormier and Jones, 2014). This shows the enormous cognitive effort we place on adjusting to a new culture setting.

 

The Morgan Horse

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Submitted by dthaley on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 08:46

The group examined the definition of behavior that was provided from lectures at the University of Massachusetts in the College of Natural Sciences Biology 551.01 Animal Communication class. “Behavior is the internally coordinated responses (action or inaction) of a whole living organism ( individual or group) to internal or external stimuli, excluding responses more easily understood as developmental changes”. From this definition of behavior our group came up with four questions that were asked during the exercise to aid in determining if  the labeled  behavior was, in fact a behavior. What is the causation of the action or inaction? Is this a developmental, learning, or playing action or inaction? Is this related to reproduction and procreation of the species? As a prey animal, are theses actions or inactions directed by genetics? These questions were used to determine what categories to put the designated behaviors into.

 

Alabasta Data Set

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Submitted by dthaley on Fri, 10/20/2017 - 15:21

Figure 1. Relationship between gender, hours slept, and hours studied. Two outliers were taken out of the data set to allow for a smoother result. Top row, first column from left: Shows the trend between GPA and gender. Second row, first column: GPA vs. sleep hours in scatter-plot form. Third row, first column: GPA as it correlates to hours studied. First row, Second column: hours slept compared GPA. Second row, second column: Trend between hours slept and gender. Third row, second column: Hours slept per week vs. hours studied per week. First row, third column: Hours studied per week vs. GPA. Second row, third column: Hours studied vs. hours slept. Third row, third column: Hours studied in terms of gender.

 

Front end R-app

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Submitted by dthaley on Fri, 10/20/2017 - 14:24

R.app

type library rcmdr

csv plain text commas

        Opened in excel

Edit data set

remove outliers from data, reference the outliers that were taken out

delete out of r-app

 

Screenshots

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Submitted by dthaley on Thu, 10/19/2017 - 19:15

The process of recording all the snapshots was handled in a very efficient manner. This was accomplished by tasking each group member with a subset of responsibilities during the process. Once all the screenshots were taken and labeled they were saved in another file. The data was recorded into a table providing the screenshot, the time in the video, the behaviour, a description, and the category of said behavior.  

 

551- methods

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Submitted by dthaley on Mon, 10/16/2017 - 22:02

METHODS

First the group examined the definition of behavior that was provide from lectures at the University of Massachusetts in the College of Natural Sciences Biology 551.01 Animal Communication class. “Behavior is the internally coordinated responses ( action or inaction) of a whole living organism ( individual or group) to internal or external stimuli, excluding responses more easily understood as developmental changes”. From this definition of behavior our group came up with four questions that were asked during the exercise to aid in determining if  what labled a behavior was, in fact a behavior.  What is the causation of the action or inaction? Is this a developmental, learning, or playing action or inaction? Is this related to reproduction and procreation of the species? As a prey animal, are theses actions or inactions directed by genetics? These questions were used to determine what categories to put the designated behaviors into.

 

To access the videos of the the horse foals,  we entered the Finder app and clicked on the GO icon and then clicked connect to server. In the address box  we entered

smb:// snapper.bio.umass.edu and pressed the Connect button, we entered a username and password where indicated. From this drop down we selected the Select volume to mount, accessed the biocommunication selection and highlighted the folders named- Horse foal Mov3 and Horse foal Mov5. We saved these files for future reference in a separate file. The videos were opened using VLC video player.

The preliminary observations of the both videos were made as a group. During this preliminary viewing the videos were paused multiple times while we discussed the possibility of what was watched was a in fact a behaviour, or if it was not a behavior. During these times the four questions were applied to the behavior in question and debate was held between the members of the group about if this was a behavior, and if so, how to categorize it and about the description of said behavior. This debate allowed the group to identify the behavioural variables that need to be measured.This was all recorded in each members notebook, which included times of said behaviours. Once the rough list was completed each member of the group rewatched the videos independently and recorded behaviors that were seen using the methods agreed upon by the group. After each membered viewed the movies, the data was compared. From the compiled lists of behaviours from the group the movies were watched again, this time using the timestamps from the data of the behaviours to record screenshots of the behaviour.

The process of recording all the snapshots was handled in a very efficient manner. This was accomplished by tasking each group member with a subset of responsibilities during the process.(For disscussion : one person used the mouse to find the times within the videos and crop the picture to be taken from the video. Another person  used the keyboard and once directed that the video was at the right time would press Command Shift 4. This initiates the screenshot application on the computer.) Once all the screenshots were taken and labeled they were saved in another file. The screenshots were recorded into a table providing the screenshot, the time in the video, the behaviour, a description, and the category of said behavior.  

 

 

 

Notes

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Submitted by dthaley on Thu, 10/12/2017 - 23:06

What is animal behavior?

Behavior is the internally coordinated responses ( action or inaction) of a whole living organism ( individual or group) to internal or external stimuli, excluding responses more easily understood as developmental changes.

Tinbergen’s four questions

  1. Causation-sensory organs, neural networks, physiology, bio chemical, etc..

  2. Development -imprinting, learning

  3. Survival value ( function)-current utility-about adaptiveness, survival reproduction

  4. Evolution-phylogenetic context in which the behaviors are found.

1. how does it work?     Types of questions : Proximate or How questions and                    

2. why does it work that way?              : Ultimate  or Why questions

3. what is the evolutionary history?

4. how does it develop in the individual?

What is communication?

The transmission of a signal from a sender to a receiver. In such a system the sender must on average benefit from the response of the recipient.

SENDER -------INFO---------> RECEIVER----decision /response------info----sender

Animal communication as a system.

Communication as a system needs a SENDER -------INFO---------> RECEIVER

      • Info coded into signal

      • Sent through the environment

      • Which can lead to distortion of message

      • Receiver has to to interpret

      • And decide to respond to sender

    • Communication can be interspecies or with other species

      • Within species

        • Baby bird begs--- gets fed

        • Bird displays

        • mating/ territory

      • Social

        • One eats the rest eat

      • Other species

        • Alarm calls

        • Tail wagging in white tailed deer

          • Alerts predators

  • Analyzing communication

    • Signals - packets of information that fit the definition of communication.

    • Message - what the signal encodes about the sender

    • Meaning - what the receiver “makes” of the message

    • Context - The “meaning” may vary depending on context and the identity of the receiver. We use context to infer the meaning.

  • UNITS OF COMMUNICATION

    • Frequency

      • kHz

      • Hz

        • Cycles per second

    • Time- a measure or duration of something

      • measured in

        • Seconds

        • Milliseconds

        • Nanoseconds

    • Amplitude-change over a single period

      • Decibels db

Five types of communication. 1-3 common 5-rare

  1. Visual -antlers, coloration

  2. Auditory - freq duration,variation

  3. Chemical- scents, hormones

  4. Tactile- touch

  5. Electrical

 

 

 

 

Classical ethology

1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Niko Tinbergen with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz

  • Early work done by Niko Tinbergen

    • Greylag geese

    • Fixed action pattern once started goes till completion

      • Many communication signals are made up of a FAP or a series of FAP’s.

        • Egg rolling in geese

          • Always has same basic form

          • Once initiated, goes to completion

          • Triggered (released) by sign stimulus of releaser

      • Konrad Lorenz Greylag Goose Triumph Display

        • Ethogram

          • A descriptive catalog of both innate and learned behavioral units of a species.

          • Creates context on information gathered

          • Allows to create an inference

        • Inference

          • process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.

        • Greylag Goose Triumph Display

          • FAP of six movements

    • FAP Both innate and plastic

      • behaviors and displays

        • may have both

          • innate component

          • learned component.

      • result is individual variation

  • David Lack-releasers

    • European Robins

      • Placed stuffed birds

        • Territories of other birds

      • Male breast coloration (orange and white) contrast

        • Triggers the response (behavior)

  •  

 

 

  • Niko Tinbergen Ethogram

    • Herring and black gulls

      • General principles

        • Males arrive first

          • Claim territory

      • Behavior categories

        • Parental care

        • Territory

        • Mating

      • Calls

        • Long call- 1st line of defense

        • Mew

        • Kekkek

        • Yeow

      • Behaviors

        • Mating

          • Male starts head tossing

          • mounts

        • Egglaying

          • Preference

            • Choking display

          • Parental care

        • Red spot

          • Visual cue for food

        • Chicks Begging

          • Continued through adulthood

  • WHAT is SOUND

    • Measurable pressure waves traveling through a medium

 

  • What can be measured from sound

    • Amp

      • Sound energy

    • Freq

      • Interval between sound waves

  • Measuring the real world is never real!

  • Scientific instruments have limitations and can distort what is being measured.

  • Transduction of Sound Energy to electrical

    • Dynamic microphone -possible distortion

      • Sound energy transduced to mechanical energy and then into an electric current

      • Cone structure responds to sound waves

      • Metal coils respond to pressure

      • Create electrical signal

    • Time domain

      • Pressure y axis

      • Time x axis

    • Frequency Domain

        • Amp y axis

      • Frequency x axis

  • Recording gear

    • Microphones parabolic

      • Good gains

      • Low frequency response

    • Shotgun microphones

      • Low gains

      • Better low frequency detection

    • Both to digital recording

  • Analog to digital conversations

    • continuous stream of electrical current is converted into a story of zeros and ones

    • ADC analog to digital converter

      • grab sample of continuous current and converts it into a binary number

    • sampling must be done enough 2 times the frequency of the sample

    • sample rate

      • time interval between samples

    • sample resolution

      • gradients of amplitude

  • Spectrum View

    • take points analyze to make frequencies

    • slice of time to look at frequency

  • sonogram View

    • spectrogram flipped on side

    • dark equals loud increase frequency

    • light equals soft decrease frequency

  • can measure

    • time domain

      • pressure over time

    • Frequency  domain

  • Animal production/ perception of communication signals

  •  Umwelt

    • animals don't see the world like humans

    • Own world view    

  • Signals for Survival

    • Signals are glue of social interactions

    • • There are few displays, but they are used in multiple contexts and therefore have multiple messages and meanings.

    • • Signals are innate fixed action patterns(FAPʼs), but need practice to use them correctly.

    • • Closely related species use similar signals because signals evolved in a common ancestor.

  • Production -visual

  • feathers are highly evolved scales

    • Colors pigment

      • Melanins

      • Carotenoids

      • Porphyrins

      • Pterins reddish colors in lizards

    • Melanins occur as granules of color

        • both in the skin and feathers of birds

        • Add strength to feathers

        • color is like

          • dark is black to reddish brown to pale yellow

      • Carotenoids

        • produced by plants

          • acquired by eating plants or by eating something that has eaten the plant

        • Can interact with melanin to produce

        • colors is like all of green yellow

      • Porphyrins

        • Modify Amino acids

        • fluorescence under ultraviolet light

        • Pink brown red green

    • Color structure

      • Refraction of incident light

      • by the microscopic structure of the feathers

    • Scattered light

      • via tiny air pockets

      • the refracts light

        • create Blues

  • Production -Display

    • Ritualized

      • certain movements of the body

      • fixed action patterns

    • Great-crested Grebe

      • Penguin display

        • seaweed dance

      • ritualized ontogenetic

    • Human facial expressions

      • 19 muscles

      • coded for emotional expression

      • universally recognized

    • Chimpanzee facial expressions

      • 66 distinct gestures with hands

      •  24 gestures

        • between chimps and gorillas

  • Mechanisms -vision

    • Eye designs different

    • photoreceptors similar

    • cones for color

    • Rod's dim lighting

    •  rods cones modified neurons

    • biochemical component that relay the signal

    •  Opsin

      • protein coded by jeans

      • shape of options

      • dictating wavelength of light detected

    • mutant Opsin

      • Can result in ability to see different frequencies of light

    • Mice can see in UV

    • some species of birds can see in UV

  • mechanisms of sound

    • Frequency can vary due to temperature

    • Timberdoodle  woodcock

      • eat earthworms big beak

      • makes noise with wings

        • modified three primary feathers

    • Manakins

      • fruit eaters

      • males form leks

      • can make Sonic Boom

      • by moving way too fast

    • Crested pigeon

      • by angle and speed. Not Feather form

    • Hummingbird flight sound

      • created by wings

      • Position of feathers

    • Anna's Hummingbird

      • Remove feathers are R4

      • Change frequency

  • mechanisms of sound

    • Two voice theory

      • MTM vibrated to produce sound

      • They both were functionally independent

      • Sole source of any modifications

        • Evidence from sonograms

    • Avian syrinx

      • Equivalent to vocal cords

      • Vocal coupled with the respiratory tract

        • End tables organism two separately use both sides

        • creates complexity and variability in each song

        • allows for plasticity of certain  songs

      • Catbird uses both sides

        • sings 2 songs

      • Thrushes-  Robbins

        •  sing with two sides

    • resonance and vocal filtering

      • soft tissue in trachea

      • soft palate

      • Teeth

      • Speak

    • song range in Sparrows

      • 2 kilohertz to 10 kilohertz

        • small animal high frequency

      • human 0.8 kilohertz to 1.1 kilohertz

        • big animals low-frequency

    • performance of song

      • high performance sound

        • large bandwidth

      • low performance sound

        • narrow bandwidth

      • Tril rates

        • can be used by birds

        • to determine made 2 arrivals

        • fast tril rate high performance

        • slow Tril rate low performance

  • mechanisms of vertebrate hearing

    • ear lobe focuses sound II auditory canal

    • tympanic membrane

      • moves according to frequency of sound

      • 15 times larger than ear ossicles

      • distance moves

        • according to energy or pressure

    • ear ossicles

      • staples Anvil Oval window

        • amplify by 22 x

      • Cochlea

        • mechanical energy to hydraulic energy

          • back to mechanical energy then to neural impulse

        •  

      • cochlear duct fluid filled

          • move that same frequency as oval window

          • same as eardrum

          • Same As sound

        • basilar membrane

          • movies with frequency of sound

        •  

        • tectorial membrane

          • doesn't move

            •  hair receptors

          • number of hair receptors that move

            • depends on how much energy in sound

    • How to encode frequency of a sound

      • basilar membrane resonates

      • resonates to 2 different frequencies along its length

        • base high frequency 20000 Hertz

        • Apex low frequency 20 Hertz

        • middle middle frequency

      • basal membrane

        • basil Larry fibers create stiffness within membrane

      • genetics dictate basilar membrane fibers

  • Avian Ear

    • Hearing and Discrimination

      • – Song selective neurons -

      • discrimination of species specific signals

      • – Responses to individual syllables

    • Two major pathways

      • Motor: HVC, RA, nXIIts >>

      • Syrinx Learning: X, LMAN, DLM

  • Getting the message across Channel partitioning

    • sender----encoded→ message decipher

      • Message has to stand out

    • Steller's Jays

      • graded signal

        • can be ramped up

        • or ramp down

      • the muscles attach to Crest can be lifted up or down

    • Tungara frog

      • Graded signals Chuck wine

        • other males

      • Chuck's can be detected by predators

      • Females attracted to Chucks

    • acoustic  encoding

      • Length

      • Frequency

      • Sequence of notes

      • Different  song types

      • Different  sequences of song types

    • chemical and coding

      • order image

        • Tarsals

        • Metatarsals

        • Forehead

        • Tail

        • Urine

    • Deciphering signals

      • Look for signals in contacts

      • infer meaning from

    • Messages about Self

      • species identification

      • Kinship

        • Beaver send Mounds

          • Territorial

          • all same family group

        • black-capped chickadee

          • chickadee calls distinguish between

          • groups can learn different chickadee songs

    • Dominance badge

      • Harris Sparrow

        • black on chest

        • the most Black Dominate

        • if paint chest dark black

          • Instantly.

          • Dominant

        • socially seen as dominant

        • individuals testosterone increases

      • Red Deer

        • Roaring

          • males defend harem

          • By Roaring

            • roaring and code status

  • general rule

    • larger  the animal

    • the lower the frequency that can be created

  • messages about self

      • species identity

      • individuals in  group

      • Kinship

      • group membership

      • Competitiveness

      • Motivational state

    • Aposematic colors

  • Long-tailed widowbird

    • males with longest Tails most mates

    • longtail handicap

  • Springbok

    • Stotting

      • jumping up showing stripes

      • shows predator ability

  • Bee language

    •  Angle to  food

    • distance to food

    • in relationship to the Sun

 

 

    

 

A paragraph

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Submitted by dthaley on Thu, 10/12/2017 - 23:02

Upon completion of the scientific figure of Asclepias syriaca (Figure 1), the detailed comparison of the two figures began. With a compare and contrast list of the similarities and differences of the figures, which was compiled in a manner using direct observation was used to make unbiased inferences of the figures.

 

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