A second theory I discussed in my essay discussed the extent of how varied parenting styles are. The theory directly related to the episode of Nanny 911 because the two parents had nearly opposite styles of raising their children. I mentioned many examples of the contrast between the mother and father. An additional instance of the contradiction was seen when the father would get the children riled up and energetic in the morning and then leave for work. In response to their energetic and often inappropriate misbehavior, their mother would make gentle and passive attempts at getting the children to obey her throughout the day. When their father returned at night the children would begin getting stern and assertive punishments in response to their actions. The inconsistent pattern of parenting throughout their daily schedule confused the children and no improvements to behavior were ever made. This theory and example to support it demonstrate how important it is that children have a clear set of rules and understanding of specific consequences they will receive if the rules aren’t followed. The theory applies to every family with young children, as well as social organizations such as schools. It is important that teachers within a school have a standard method of responding to misbehaviors from their students, so that young children are receiving consistent consequences and are able to develop and understanding of which behaviors are acceptable and which behaviors are not.
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One of the theories I discussed in my essay was Gordon Neufeld’s theory in the article The Collapse of Parenting. In the article, Neufeld theorizes that parents in our country have become more lenient while raising their children, and are more prone to asking their children to do things rather than telling their children to do things. He suggests that the trend occurs because parents feel they will get resistance if they approach their children with demands. However, he also theorizes that this approach has a negative impact on our children’s behavior. Neufeld argues that acting as a child’s equal or inferior will naturally cause the child to feel less cared for and will encourage the child to assume an alpha role in the relationship he or she has with the parent. There are a few additional examples from this episode of Nanny 911 which support Neufeld’s theory. Firstly, the mother often asks her children to share their toys or candy with each other. Because she requests a behavior rather than demanding one, the children fail to cooperate. In fact, they completely ignore their mother because they feel superior to her after receiving requests rather than commands or rules. A second example of this concept is seen when the children misbehave physically. When Theron hits Sheersa, the mother asks him to apologize to his sister. Not only does Theron not comply with the request, but exhibits an even worse response by screaming “NO!” at his mother. This is a clear example of the child feeling as though he has the alpha position in his relationship with his mother.
Based on the data from this experimental trial, it is possible to conclude that exposure to caffeine decreases a planarian’s ability to regenerate. Referencing figure 5, the slope of the line of best fit is 0.0107, indicating that the control planarians regenerated at a rate of about 0.0107cm each day. However, the planarians in the low concentration of caffeine regenerated at a slower rate of only 0.0031cm each day. The planarians in the high concentration of caffeine were unable to regenerate altogether, and instead decreased in length at an average rate of 0.0216cm per day.
In addition to causing a slower rate of generation, the increasing concentrations of caffeine represented proportionally decreasing total changes in length over 16 days. The control planarians increased in length by an average of 0.2cm in 16 days, while the planarians in a low concentration of caffeine increased in length by an average of only 0.067cm in 16 days. The planarians in a high concentration of caffeine decreased in length by an average of 0.2cm, because the caffeine caused them to shrivel and be incapable of growth.
This graph displays the difference between the planarian’s length on day 0, when the cuts were made, and day 16, when the final length measurement was taken. Each bar of the graph represents the average of this total change in length for the three planarians in that corresponding group. The average total change in length of the control group was 0.2cm, the average total change in length of the 50/50 Water Joe and Pure Life planarians was 0.067, and the average total change in length of the Water Joe Only planarians was -0.2.
This graph displays the progressive changes in length throughout the experimental trial. Day 0 represents the day on which the original cuts were made to the planarians. After being cut, the average length of the planarians in all three groups was 0.4 cm. Days 12, 14, and 16 represent the days on which measurements of the planarian’s lengths were taken and recorded. Each of these three days displays three data points; an average length of the three control planarians (blue,) an average length of the three planarians in the 50/50 Water Joe and Pure Life environment (orange,) and an average length of the three planarians in the Water Joe Only environment (gray.) On day 12 the average length of the control planarians was 0.467cm, the average length of the 50/50 Water Joe and Pure Life planarians was 0.4cm, and the average length of the Water Joe Only planarians was 0.3cm. On day 14 the average length of the control planarians was 0.53cm, the average length of the 50/50 Water Joe and Pure Life planarians was 0.43cm, and the average length of the Water Joe Only planarians was 0.2cm. On day 16 the average length of the control planarians was 0.6cm, the average length of the 50/50 Water Joe and Pure Life planarians was 0.467cm, and the average length of the Water Joe Only planarians was 0.2cm.
According to Vygotsky, a child’s social and and cultural environments are important in fostering cognitive growth. The role of adults or so-called “more knowledgeable others” fosters learning because adults convey their interpretations of the world through their interactions with children. Children are able to learn faster when being taught by an individual, preferably an adult, with a better understanding of the concept. Adults provide physical and cognitive tools for survival. In our story book, Sally Squirrel is cognitively developing by following her mother’s example - she watches her collect the acorns for the winter, listens to her advice, and learns from these experiences. She will eventually be able to survive on her own because of her mother’s nurturing ways. If adults read this book to children, they will be benefitting the children in the process of their cognitive development. When listening to their parents or teacher read and count, the children will be encouraged to imitate the to reading and counting. Eventually, with enough support from the more knowledgeable other, the child may be able to complete the story without assistance. To encourage independent reading, we have made the book’s language just simple enough for children to read it mostly independently, but there are occasional tough words which should help stimulate the child to ask their parent, a more knowledgeable other, for help.
Our story book focuses on the fourth stage of Erikson’s theory; “Industry vs. Inferiority.” In this stage (which our target audience of 5-7 year olds should be experiencing) children are developmentally becoming competent and confident in their abilities, or are feeling inferior. Feelings of confidence stem from children being supported while attempting to complete tasks on their own, and rewarded for their accomplishments. Feelings of inferiority stem from children being ridiculed or punished for their failures; causing hesitation to continue to attempt any challenges. In our story, the mother squirrel teaches her daughter how to find acorns. When her child successfully finds acorns, the mother praises and rewards her so that she will feel confident to continue mastering the skill in the future. Erikson’s theory can also be useful for the parent or teacher assisting their child with reading this story book. By challenging the child to read pages of the story or count pictures of acorns independently, and rewarding the child when successful, the adult can make the child feel confident to continue mastering reading and counting skills.
The experiment unfortunately did not offer conclusive results. Neither our hypothesis nor our prediction could be confidently confirmed based on the data gathered from our trials. If our prediction had been correct, the trials with a combination of one male and one female fish would have shown the most significant change in oxygen concentration over five minutes. However, as displayed in the data above, the trials with a combination of one male and one female fish instead had the lowest change in oxygen concentration over five minutes.
In addition to unexpected measurements of oxygen concentration over time, the SMR data we gathered was inconsistent with our hypothesis and prediction. The average SMR of the fish in the trials with one male and one female was not the highest of the three possible gender-combinations. This was again inconsistent with our prediction that the fish would have a faster metabolic rate during opposite-gender socialization due to sexual arousal.
This trend of decreasing SMR over consecutive trials suggests that our data did not offer an accurate representation of whether gender-specific socialization causes changes in metabolic rate. Instead, the continuously decreasing SMR suggests possible exhaustion of the fish due to continuous stress from one trial to the next without a long enough recovery period. Once this exhaustion began to present itself, socialization between the fish did not take place at all, and gender therefore became irrelevant.
As figure 4 shows, the greatest change in oxygen concentration, 44.7 microMolar, was observed in the trial that had two males in the flask. The trial with two females in the flask showed a less significant change in oxygen concentration; 33.6 microMolar. Also based on the data in figure 4, the average change in oxygen concentration for the five trials with one male and one female was 32.66 microMolar, the lowest of the three values. Also displayed in figure 4, the SMR of the fish was highest in trial one when only two males were in the flask; 0.0214634 mL O2/g/min. When only two females were in the flak, the SMR of the fish was 0.0127427 mL O2/g/min. Finally, based on the data in the figure, the average SMR of the fish in the five trials in which they were put into mixed-gender environments was .01317554. As shown in figure 5, the SMR of the fish continuously decreased in each consecutive trial.
Observational data from the trials includes the fact that there was minimal interaction between the two fish sharing the flask in any of the seven trials. No courtship behavior was observed in any of the five trials with one male and one female fish sharing the flask.
The experiment consisted of a total of seven trials. There was a total of four fish used throughout the trials; male A, male B, female A, and female B. Trial one consisted of the two males being in the flask together. Trials two and three were both combinations of one male and one female; male A with female A, then male B with female B. Trial four was the two females in the flask together. Trials five, six, and seven were also combinations of one male with one female; male B with female B, male A with female B, and male B with female A.