The plant species I choose to photograph on campus is Quercus rubra commonly referred to as the northern red oak. The red oak is one of New England most common forest trees. The specific Red Oak I am photographing is located by the North Apartments on Campus. The Red Oak is easily identifiable because of the leaves and the acorns it grows. According to Go Botany a well-known key used to identify New England flora the leaf blade on the red oak is simple with one leaf per node along the stem and the edge of the leaf blade has lobes. The acorn can be identified by its flat top. Some factors that need to be controlled are the time of day in which the photograph is taken. Also the time period between the photographs being taken need to be controlled because this tree can lose its leaves.
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Title: Transoceanic Migration, Spatial Dynamics, and Population Linkages of White Sharks
Authors: Ramon Bonfil, Michael Meyer, Michael C. Scholl, Ryan Johnson, Shannon O’Brien, Herman Oosthuizen, Stephan Swanson, Deon Kotze, and Michael Paterson
In the scientific article Transoceanic Migration, Spatial Dynamics, and Population Linkages of White Sharks published in sciencemag many groundbreaking discoveries about white sharks were discussed. The goals or objectives of this study appeared to be very broad initially because at the time very limited information was known about white sharks. White sharks were previously very hard to study due to restrictions in technology at the time. The initial objective of this study according to Bonfil was to use electronic tagging and photographic identification data in order to observe and show the complex behavioral patterns of white sharks. Using the modern Technology at the time they were able to observe these white sharks and categorize their movements into four distinct behavioral patterns: rapid transoceanic return migrations, frequent long-distance coastal return migrations, smaller-scale patrolling, and site fidelity
While observing the white sharks in this study revolutionary observations were made. One of the most important observations made was while observing a female shark referred to as P12. This specific shark made a transoceanic migration from South Africa to Australia and back. This shark made the voyage without the aid of oceanic islands, which were previously believed to be necessary for transoceanic migrations. This brings into question how P12 was able to navigate this long journey. Bonfil speculates that it is possible that white sharks use celestial cues as a navigational mechanism instead of, or in addition to Earth’s magnetic field. This specific migration was important because previously it was believed that females didn’t make transoceanic migrations. This also showed a clear direct link to two of the most widely separated white shark populations. This link between the two populations is especially important because it brings into question whether or not the female has a natal homing mechanism. While on this migration voyage this female shark recorded the fastest return migration recorded among marine animals.
Personally, I thought this study and their findings were very much by chance. The main issue I have with the study is the lack of a goal or clear objective when studying the white sharks. Since the study lacked a clear goal all of their results were pretty much by chance and any knowledge that was found could be labeled groundbreaking. I also believe that since previously there was limited knowledge about this specific shark species any information found was labeled as news worthy. I also feel that this study can be seen as a good starting point and left many questions unanswered. For example, now that we know that female white sharks are capable of making transoceanic migrations why are they doing this? And are all female sharks doing it? If not why?
Bonfil, R., Meyer, M. L., Scholl, M. C., Johnson, R., Obrien, S., Oosthuizen, H., . . . Paterson, M. (2005, October 7). Transoceanic migration, spatial dynamics, and population linkages of white sharks. Science.
In the scientific article Transoceanic Migration, Spatial Dynamics, and Population Linkages of White Sharks published in sciencemag many ground breaking discovers about white sharks were found. The goals or objective of this study appeared to be very broad initially because at the time very limited information was known about white sharks. White sharks were previously very hard to study due to restrictions in technology at the time. The initial objective of this study according to Bonfil was to use electronic tagging and photographic identification data in order to observe and show the complex behavioral patterns of white sharks. Using the modern Technology at the time they were able to observe these white sharks and categorize their movements into four behaviorial patterns: rapid transoceanic return migrations, frequent long-distance coastal return migrations, smaller-scale patrolling, and site fidelity.
Figure 1. Red-tail Hawk's feathers vary in coloration dependant on the location on the hawks body.
In everyday life there are many “steps” or procedures we follow in order to complete our day and achieve tasks. I will be exploring my day step by step and divide it into 6 main categories consisting of transportation, personal grooming, academics, chores, fun, eating, and miscellaneous. Transportation for this purpose will be defined as moving from one location to another. The day I am viewing it can be seen that the majority of my transportation can be divided into 2 subsections which are driving and walking. I spent over 3 hours of my day driving from one location to another. I also spent much of my day walking from one location to another whether it be from one class to another or from room to room. Overall I spent the majority of my day in this subsection.
In class we were asked to observe a slug like species with no background information and make observations of this species. The initial observations I viewed were that the creature had an off-white/ yellowish body, red eyes and a black face. Since the head was easily identifiable it was apparent that the creature had noticeable anterior and posterior ends. The creature also had 16 legs, which seemed to be divided into 3 sections with different purposes. The upmost section of the legs on the anterior end of the slug like creature was composed of a group of 6 legs that seemed to do most of the work when the creature was moving and help aided the creature when turning over. The next section of legs appeared to help the creature grasp or stick to surfaces. While the hind legs function was not present while I was observing this species. Lastly, the species body appeared to move in segments not as a whole. These were the initial observations to be made however with more time many more could be made.
It appears to have 16 legs however it uses the upmost 6 legs in order to turn over. It also appeals to be an insect closely related it a maggot. It has an off white appearance with reddish orange eyes, black face and prominent black spots on his right side towards the bottom. It is soft and mushy in texture and also has an orange striped band before you reach the head. The body shrinks and extends when the creature moves almost as if the body is moving in segments. It also has noticeable posterior and anterior ends.
When body is fully extended it measures approximately 23mm from anterior to posterior ends. However, when the body is shrunk and unmoving it measures about 16mm in length. At the widest point on the body it measures about 3mm. The head measures about 1.5mm in both length and width. The creature also has the ability to lift his head by lifting his front few legs into the air. It also has a noticeable ventral line. There was an estimated 11 segments.