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Perfect Paragraph: Background

Submitted by brdougherty on Fri, 11/10/2017 - 12:04

The three forms of sweetener observed are pure sucrose, pure brown sugar, and pure saccharin. The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11 and in a similar experiment it was found that sucrose produces a rewarding effect in planarians (Sciencedirect). Them chemical formula for brown sugar is the same as sucrose however it has molasses present in it. While we hypothesis that similar results will be seen in sucrose and brown sugar it has yet to be seen if planarians have a preference between the two. Saccharin which is commonly referred to as sweet n’ low has a chemical formula of C7H5NO3S. Saccharin offers effectively no food energy but is however approximately 300-400 times sweeter than sucrose. While no experiment was done to show if planarians prefer saccharin the group i interested to see if the planarians have a preference for the artificial sweetener.

 

Background Planarians

Submitted by brdougherty on Fri, 11/10/2017 - 09:33

Planarians are flatworms that are mostly found in freshwater. The length of their bodies on average are 3-15 mm ( Britannica Encyclopedia). Their bodies can be described as soft and leaf shaped. Planarians are generally carnivorous and feed on protozoans, worms, and tiny snails. Planarians are one of the first species with a central nervous system. While researching planarians one thing that I found interesting is that they are often used as a model for preference for humans. This led me to wonder how planarians preference different substances The specific aim of this study is to observe how planarians preference 3 different forms of sweetener and see if they are more attracted to a specific sweetener, thus indicating which of these three could potentially be more highly preferred in humans. The three forms of sweetener observed are pure sucrose, pure brown sugar, and pure saccharin.

Animal Movement Article Summary 3

Submitted by brdougherty on Fri, 11/10/2017 - 09:19

            Biewener’s experiment was a very well organized experiment that tested a well thought out hypothesis that answered how large animals bodies were able to function without being near their skeletal limit. This finding is a very important one because it answers how large mammals are able to function. One thing I personally disliked about this paper was the format was tougher to follow and understand when compared to a normal formatted research paper. The formatting distracted me from the actual science and caused me to spend more time trying to just understand the format. One thing Biewener should have discussed in greater detail was how the mechanical advantage of the extensor muscle groups was calculated instead of just stating that radiographs and anatomic dissection determined it. This also leads to the question whether radiographs and anatomic dissection could be used to both find the same mechanical advantage or if there is a slight variation between the two. Overall, I believe this was a good paper and good research that helped prove Biewener’s theory that larger species would develop a more upright position to achieve similar stresses as smaller mammals. 

Animal Movement Article Summary 2

Submitted by brdougherty on Thu, 11/09/2017 - 22:06

In order to test his hypothesis Biewener made different sized mammals run on a force platform where he filmed the mammals in lateral view in order to determine the mechanical advantage of the ground reaction force in relation to the moments exerted at the joints that corresponded. To determine the mechanical advantage of the extensor groups Biewener used radiographs or anatomic dissection, and adjusted for observed angular displacements at joints. Once the mechanical advantage for both of these were found the EMA of extensor muscle was calculated for the joints of the forelimb and hindlimb when the limb was in contact with the ground.

            The results in Biewener’s experiment show that the peak stresses in the muscle are relatively uniform in mammals of varying body sizes. In fact the results show the EMA scales almost proportional to body mass. The results also show that there was no significant change in EMA when a species was changing gates or moving at varying speeds. These results support Biewener’s theory that limb posture would adjust when species got larger to a more upright position in order to have similar stresses act upon joints as smaller mammals

Animal Movement Article Summary

Submitted by brdougherty on Thu, 11/09/2017 - 16:45

            In the article, Scaling Body Support in Mammals: Limb Posture and Muscle Mechanics, Biewener examines the effects of body structure on peak stresses.  In theory the way bones scale and the muscle geometry of mammals suggest that peak stresses should increase with increasing size. However, if this statement were true then large animals would be functioning near the limit possible for the skeleton which research shows is untrue. Research shows in fact that when mammals ranging from 0.1 to 300 kg were tested doing strenuous activities that their peak skeletal stresses were fairly uniform and their safety factor ranged from a 2 to 4.  In order to explain this Biewener proposes “that similar stresses are achieved in the mammalian skeleton by a size-dependent change in locomotor limb posture, shifting from the crouched postures of small animals to the more upright postures of larger species.” The thought process behind this theory was originally recognized by Gray, who noted that a more upright position would align the segments and joints in the limb more with the ground reaction force vector, exerted at the foot. This transformation would vastly reduce the moments exerted on the joints of the limbs. 

Perfect Paragraph: Writing for Persuasion

Submitted by brdougherty on Fri, 11/03/2017 - 11:00

In a world where a retrovirus is killing all domestic dogs and scientists have developed a vaccine to save one pregnant dog and its’ offspring the breed that should be saved is the Border collie. The Boarder collie should be saved for a multitude of reasons ranging from their general good health, their intelligence, and the other jobs they may be trained to do.

 

Border collies are known to be a very healthy dog breed and should have very little health complications when compared to most dog breeds. Their impeccable health makes them the best option to be saved. Border collies are also very intelligent which make them amazing house pets.  This breed is also known to be very obedient, highly trainable, and excel in canine sports. Lastly, the Border collie is also known as the original sheep dog so they serve multiple purposes other than being just a housedog. As one can see Border collies would be the best dog species to save.

Writing for Persuasion

Submitted by brdougherty on Fri, 11/03/2017 - 10:49

In a world where a retrovirus is killing all domestic dogs and scientists have developed a vaccine to save one pregnant dog and its’ offspring the breed that should be saved is a Border collie. Border collies are known to be a very healthy breed of dogs and should have very little health complications when compared to most dog breeds. Border collies are very intelligent and make amazing house pets as a medium sized dog.  This breed is known to be very obedient, highly trainable, and excel in canine sports. The Border collie is also known as a sheep dog so they serve multiple purposes other than being just a housedog. 

Planarians

Submitted by brdougherty on Wed, 11/01/2017 - 13:57

Planarians are flatworms that are mostly found in freshwater. The length of their bodies on average are 3-15 mm ( Britannica Encyclopedia). Their bodies can be described as soft and leaf shaped. Planarians are generally carnivorous and feed on protozoans, worms, and tiny snails. Planarians are one of the first species with a central nervous system. While researching planarians one thing that I found interesting was when they were given substances that humans generally abuse they displayed very similar behaviors as humans. This led me to wonder how planarians react to different substances and if certain substances are more addictive than others. The specific aim of this study is to observe how planarians react in 3 different forms of sweetener and see if they are more attracted to a specific sweetener. The three forms of sweetener observed are brown sugar, sugar cane, and delectables ecostick sweetener.

 

Perfect Paragraph

Submitted by brdougherty on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 09:03

The results of this study showed that heat treatment could be used to effectively reduce the amount of Barberry in a given location. In the untreated plots (control group) barberry abundance averaged 31%, where in the plots treated once the Barberry abundance averaged 6.3%, and lastly in plots treated twice Barberry abundance averaged 0.7%. The results also implied that the timing of initial treatment had no effect on abundance estimates (post-leafout vs. pre-leafout). One downside to this study was the use of propane torches since they can be dangerous to use without proper training and they have a high operation cost. While this study finds that directed heating will reduce the amount of barberry in a given site it will not permanently eliminate it. However, it does serve as a temporary solution in locations where pesticide is prohibited.

New England Flora

Submitted by brdougherty on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 08:55

The results showed that heat treatment could be used to effectively reduce the amount of Barberry in a given location. In the untreated plots (control) barberry abundance averaged 31%, where in plots treated once the Barberry abundance average 6.3%, and lastly in plots treated twice Barberry abundance averaged 0.7%. The results also showed that the timing of initial treatment had no effect on abundance estimates (post-leafout vs. pre-leafout). Some downsides to using propane torches are they can be dangerous to use without proper training and they have a high operation cost. While this study finds that directed heating will reduce the amount of barberry in a given site it will not permanently eliminate it. However, it does serve as a temporary solution in locations where pesticide is prohibited.

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