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Extraction of Trimyristin

Submitted by vthong on Mon, 11/13/2017 - 12:12

Nutmeg, tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME), and boiling chips were added to a 10 mL round-bottom flask. After allowing the solution to gently boil over a sand bath for 10 minutes, it was raised from the apparatus to let settle and cool. The solution was then filtered using a micro-scale filtration apparatus into an Erlenmeyer flask. TBME was added to the remaining round-bottom flask to rinse the remaining solid to obtain leftover trimyristin. After cooling, the liquid in the round-bottom flask was also pipetted into the micro-scale filtration apparatus into the Erlenmeyer flask. A gentle stream was air was passed into the flask to evaporate the trimyristin into a gummy yellowish solid.

Risks of High Blood Pressure

Submitted by vthong on Fri, 11/10/2017 - 11:49

"In 2005, high blood pressure was responsible for one in six death in the United states," says a new report from experts at the Institute of Medicine. Too much intake of sodium in our diets often leads to high blood pressure. Hypertension can lead to heart attacks, strokes, and other cardiovascular events that may ultimately result in death. To have hypertension means that one's blood pressure reads above 140 over 90. Unfortunately, people are at risk for cardiovascular disease at pre-hypertension, which is between a blood pressure reading of 'normal' and 'high.' Of the 42 million Americans who have uncontrolled hypertension, 27% are unaware of it, 11% are not being treated, and 26% are being treated but their blood pressure has not significantly decreased. There are no symptoms to hypertension, which is why so many people neglect the possibility of having it. Hypertension is a serious issue in our society because there is so much exposure to excess sodium in the foods that we eat, whether it is at the restaurant or packaged at the grocery store to be cooked at homeBecause so much of the sodium in our bodies comes from the foods that we eat, the best way to save lives is to cut down on dietary sodium intake.

Acclimating planaria

Submitted by vthong on Thu, 11/09/2017 - 18:52

Before being distributed to their assigned groups, we will acclimate the planaria to their respective environments. All 90 planaria will be placed in Poland Spring water for one day prior to being placed into increasing concentrations of the three varying environments. If we observe that the planarians die in the process of being acclimated in higher concentrations of solute, then we will decrease the experimental concentrations so that the planarians will survive the duration of the experiment. Once acclimated, each group will receive planaria for both their control and given environmental groups.

 

Salt

Submitted by vthong on Tue, 11/07/2017 - 18:45

"In 2005, high blood pressure was responsible for one in six death in the United states," says a new report from experts at the Institute of Medicine. Too much intake of sodium in our diets leads can lead to high blood pressure. Hypertension can lead to heart attacks, stroke, and other cardiovascular events that may cause death. Having hypertension means that your blood pressure reads above 140 over 90. Unfortunately, people are at risk for cardiovascular disease at pre-hypertension, which is between a blood pressure reading of 'normal' and 'high.' 42 million Americans have uncontrolled hypertension, 27% of which don't know it, 11% are not being treated, and 26% aare being treated but not enough to get their blood pressure down. Because so much of the sodium in our bodies comes from the foods that we eat, the best way to save lives is to cut down on dietary sodium intake.

Cocaine Rats

Submitted by vthong on Fri, 11/03/2017 - 10:19

In a recent experiment, scientists used rats to observe the possible effects that cocaine might have on DNA transcription activity. The control group consisted of rats treated with saline, while the experimental group was treated with cocaine. To find correlation between cocaine usage and transcription activity, scientists looked at amounts of cytoplasmic HDAC in both groups. HDAC is a protein that removes acetyl groups from DNA histones. Results show that rats treated with cocaine had higher amounts of cytoplasmic HDAC compared to the saline-treated rats. Histone acetylation is more likely to be lower in the cocaine-treated rats since there is more HDAC in the cytoplasm rather than in the nucleus. With these results, the scientists were able to show correlation between use of cocaine and transcription activity. Because DNA is often tightly coiled to protect the genome from being exposed, having less HDAC in the nuclei in cocaine users would lead to their DNA being more susceptible to potentially harmful environmental factors.

Cocaine Rats

Submitted by vthong on Thu, 11/02/2017 - 15:45

In a recent experiment, scientists used rats to observe the possible effects that cocaine might have on transcription activity. The control group consisted of rats treated with saline, while the experimental group was treated with cocaine. Results show that rats treated with cocaine had higher amounts of cytoplasmic HDAC compared to saline-treated rats. HDAC is a protein that removes acetyl groups from DNA histones. Histone acetylation is more likely to be lower in the cocaine-treated rats since there is less HDAC in their nuclei. With these results, the scientists were able to show correlation between use of cocaine and transcription activity. One can conclude that using cocaine is harmful to your cells because the DNA less coiled, and therefore less protected.

Acetylation of Histones

Submitted by vthong on Thu, 11/02/2017 - 15:34

Gene expression can be modified in many ways. One method of modifying gene expression is by acetylation. Acetyl groups can be added and removed from histones on the DNA. When there are more acetyl groups on the DNA, there is more transcription. Histone acetyl transferase (HAT) is a protein that adds acetyl groups to the histones. Acetyl groups can be removed from histones by a protein called histone deacetylase (HDAC). Less acetyl groups on the histones would lead to less transcription in that region of the DNA. Acetylation is directly proportional with transcription activity.

Preparation of Cyclohexanol Dehydration

Submitted by vthong on Tue, 10/31/2017 - 00:16

Approximately 2.036 grams of cyclohexanol and 0.5 mL of 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were added into a tared round-bottom flask. A couple of boiling chips were added to the round-bottom flask in preparation for distillation. A fractional distillation apparatus was set up to collect a pure sample of cyclohexene. Fractional distillation was stopped when very little mixture of cyclohexanol and phosphoric acid remained in the round-bottom flask. The collected sample in the vial was pipetted into a reaction tube. 

Synthesis of Cyclohexene

Submitted by vthong on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 09:50

Cyclohexene was synthesized by the dehydration of cyclohexanol with a percent yield of 33.3% with reference to the purity results in the gas chromatography analysis. According to the gas chromatography analysis, the purity was 100%. There were no peaks recorded for this experiment due to the poor functioning of the gas chromatography machine, and also due to the fact that the gas chromatography machine did not run for a long enough time for peaks to be observed. The theoretical yield of cyclohexene was 1.642 grams due to the 2.072 grams of cyclohexanol that was used in the experiment. However, the actual yeild of the experiment was 0.546 grams of cyclohexene. An infrared analysis was also done, in which a beam of infrared light ran through a small sample of the collected content to record its infrared spectrum. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the presence of certain functional groups by measuring the vibration of the atoms in the sample. A high stretching frequency (wavenumber) of the infrared analysis is an indication of stronger bonds. For this experiment, the infrared analysis showed several high wavenumbers, which means that an alkene group was present in the collected content. This means that cyclohexene was synthesized in the analyzed sample.

Fortification

Submitted by vthong on Tue, 10/24/2017 - 13:02

Fortification is the process through which nutrients that were not necessarily originally in a food area added to make the food more nutritious. Enrichment is the process through which nutrients that were once in grains and are removed through the refining process, are re-added to those grains. Fortification is different from enrichment becasuse in involves adding in nutrients that were not in that food in the first place, such as adding vitamin D to milk which isn’t ever naturally found in milk. Enrichment, on the other hand, involves re-adding nutrients that were already in the foods and were removed during the refining process.

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