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PefectParagraph Nov6-10

Submitted by rhallice on Fri, 11/10/2017 - 11:28

 

In plants, there stem cells are located in the shoot meristem where WUSCHEL (WUS) homeobox genes and CLAVATA 3 (CLV3) genes are constantly being expressed through negative feedback loops. When plants want to grow, the shoot meristem WUS, a transcription factor, specifies stem cell identity for growth when it is expressed. WUS also turns on its own repressor CLV3 as well that in turn regulates shoot meristem size. This negative feedback loop is important in plant growth and regulation. CLV3 is a signal peptide that binds to CLV1 a receptor complex however the exact pathway for modifying CLV3 and its applicability for CLV signaling are unknown.

Morphogen Concentration

Submitted by rhallice on Sun, 11/05/2017 - 14:38

 

            Morphogens are chemical agents that are typically produced by source cells and diffuse across the surrounding tissues of an embryo setting up a concentration gradient. This concentration gradient of a biomedical molecule determines the fate of embryo development and also supply the positional information to cells in an embryo.  Drosophila also known as fruit flies make for the perfect model organism for studying embryonic development and genetics due to their numbers and ease of access. In a recent study scientist found that dorsal, a maternal effect gene, encodes for a morphogen gradient that regulates the development of ventral embryo structures. Drosophila embryos are separated into two major and important axes patterning: the anterior-posterior axis and the dorsal-ventral axis. The dorsal-ventral patterning axis determines the back (dorsal) and front (ventral) side of the embryo and is dependent on the ventral nuclear concentration of dorsal. The dorsal side of the embryo is developed when oocyte nucleus moves from posterior to anterior side of the embryo and expresses a protein called Gurken. When Gurken is present it repress the production of Pipe protein. The pipe protein is important in the pathway to get dorsal a morphogen into ventral nuclei and therefore to determine ventral identity. However once expressed Pipe begins the extracellular cascade to turn on Toll receptors on ventral embryo cells. This cascade continues intracellularly to separate the dorsal morphogen from Cactus. Once separated form Cactus, dorsal is able to move into the nucleolus of the ventral cell to act as a morphogen. Once inside the nucleus, the dorsal activates different genes depending on its concentration setting up a gradient turning on transcription factors twist and zen which in turn results in the formation of the embryonic mesoderm. The mesoderm (middle layer) is one of the three germ layers that are developed in an early embryo and arise to form muscle tissues and red blood cells.

 

CLAVATA Perfect Paragraph

Submitted by rhallice on Thu, 10/26/2017 - 18:34

The Researchers used mutants with larger stems and tomato fruits to find out what caused these mutants, more specifically how the CLAVATA signaling pathway is regulated. The researchers used forward genetics, an approach that is used to identify genes. They used a technique called CRISPR/Cas9 and found that arabinosyltransferase genes were essential for the control of meristem size and plays a major role in the CLV pathway. They used mutants and there phenotypes to support this hypothesis. They found that fab and fin mutants in tomatoes had larger meristems than normal wild types. After discovering these mutants researchers cloned the genome regions of the DNA that caused the fab and fin mutants. They mapped these mutants and found that fab codes for CLV1, the receptor in the pathways while fin codes for arabinosyltransferase, what seems to be the unknown link in this pathway that the scientists sought to find. In the fin mutants the researchers also found that SICLV3 a signal peptide was being expressed at a higher rate. The scientist think that fin adds a arabinose onto SICLV3 and they used this to rescue the fin mutants meaning that the SICLV3 with arabinose had tomatoes of normal sizes. The work of these researchers using forward genetics, mutations and rescuing phenotypes they found the CLV3 with FIN wild type and the arabinosyltransferase enzymes of FAB2 and SIRRA3a were used to activate the FAB receptor. Remember that mutant fab caused much larger meristems. This, the researchers discovered was the missing pathway that scientists were looking for.

PP #6

Submitted by rhallice on Thu, 10/19/2017 - 20:00

This experiment and findings is a very important turning point when healing and treating diabetic patients with wounds that easily get infected from microorganisms causing damage. Modern medicine is always evolving every day so it is very important to stay up to date with all the growing advancements to improve health care and improving the well-being of patients.  

PP #5

Submitted by rhallice on Thu, 10/12/2017 - 23:12

This journal discusses the treatment of diabetic wounds and how to heal them and protect these wounds form microbial infection. Historically the treatment of Diabetic wounds requires a very large amount of growth factors so the researchers developed a strategy using a payload comprising of Eudragit RL/RS 100 nanofibers carrying gentamicin sulphate (GS) a bacterial inhibitor in a concentrate with the human epidermal growthfactor (rhEGF), a wound healing accelerator. This is important because diabetes is a barrier to proper wound healing that can lead to infection or worst case amputation. They used scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared, spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to characterize this new fabricated nanoscaffold. The subsequent research that followed this experiment showed much improvement to healing wounds then traditional bandages.

 

Perfect #4

Submitted by rhallice on Thu, 10/05/2017 - 20:32

This particular tree was chosen simply because every morning I drive to school and park my car in lot 11. Every day I walk by this tree on my way to class and back from class. Being the astute observer I noticed that the tree stands tall and strong all by itself surrounded by walkways and concrete roads with electrical wires almost cutting it in half. It’s an old that has so fared survived the craziness of the modern world standing tall against the ever-changing campus that is UMass Amherst and it’s seemingly never-ending construction projects. This unconquerable tree is the subject of the methods that sought be easy enough for someone to find and replicate a figure similar to mine based off the information provided in the methods. This project was assigned by the professor of Bio312, a writing in Biology class offered by the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in order to get students writing as professional scientists. To learn the language of science both in speech as well as literature. To write concise to the academic audience of our professor as well as our peers.

 

Perfect Paragraph 3

Submitted by rhallice on Thu, 09/28/2017 - 18:14

This scientific journal discusses the importance of surface ozone concentrations and how they make an impact on what growth, yield, and quality. They used charcoal filtered air treatments to represent an environment of surface ozone concentrations that closely matched pre-industrial conditions. Then for a present-day representation of surface ozone concentrations, the researchers used non-filtered air treatments. The average number for CF O3 concentration was 13.3 while the average NF concentration of O3 was 34.6 in order to effect the rise in average O3 concentrations during industrialization The researchers found that the higher O3 concentration of the NF had a significant negative effect on grain yield as compared to CF.

My Day

Submitted by rhallice on Fri, 09/15/2017 - 15:15

Driving

I spend a rather good chunk of my day driving between where I live, where I coach, and where I go to school. I dedicate around 3 hours every day driving myself from my home in Shrewsbury MA, to Holy Cross in Worcester MA, and then to UMass all the way out in Amherst MA. I coach Men’s and Women’s Hockey at the College of the Holy Cross and a full time student at UMass. I drive a Nissan Altima that I recently got new tires and an oil change for. I plug in my IPhone to my Aux and listen to mostly Country and classic Rock while I drive. I take the Mass Pike every day as it’s the major highway between my locations.

Food

Start the mornings off with a cold bottle of water with a green tea teabag and a lemon slice in it. I grab a piece of fruit usually an apple or a pair and I usually add eggs and any meat available in my fridge which is usually my chicken. This morning I had a Granny Smith apple with grilled chicken and eggs. I grab extra waters and granola bars for my drives between home, work and, school. This morning after work on the way to school I stopped at Dunkin Donuts and got an Iced Coffee.

Assignment 1

Submitted by rhallice on Fri, 09/08/2017 - 15:32

Today I obserevd a small fragile maggot looking creature in a small plastic cup. The tiny twelve segemnted creature measued around 25 mm in length from head to tail. Almost like an accordian the small creature contracted and stretched it's body when moving. On it's bottom side it had small ampendagies that differed in size and mobility. The creature was able to lift it's head off the cup and hold it up for considerable amounts of time as it tried desperately to escape and climb up the slippery walls of the cup.The head seemed to have a much more rigid exoskeleton than as opposed to the rest of the body. Two large eyes cover a majority of the creature's face and looked almost like large red balls that seem to give the animal a wide view of it's surroundings. The small maggot was very active within the small cup trying to build any sort of momentum to force itself out of the cup.

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