Trimyristin is an organic compound found in nutmeg, whose structure consists of a glycerol backbone and fatty acid groups. In this lab, pure trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg via filtration and recrystallization using acetone as the solvent; acetone also helped to purify the sample along the way. Trimyristin undergoes an acid- catalyzed hydrolysis reaction with HCl to form a carboxylic acid (myristic acid). The percent recovery of crude yellow trimyristin, or in other words, the amount of trimyristin (per gram) of nutmeg as a percentage was found to be 65%. After the first recrystallization, the percent recovery decreased significantly to 22.5%. Some possible sources of error for this drastic decrease in percent recovery include cooling the solution to quickly instead of properly letting it cool to room temperature before placing it onto the ice bath. In addition, the compound may also have not completely dissolved which would result in a decreased number of crystals formed. Following the second recrystallization of the trimyristin, the remaining nutmeg used resulted in a percent recovery of 68.88%. The precipitate formed from the hydrolysis was myristic acid and its percent recovery was calculated to be 75%. The purity and identity of both products were assessed using their melting point ranges.
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In this experiment, the SN2 Williamson-Ether Reaction of 2-naphthol (using NaOH, EtOH, and n-Butyl iodide as solvents) was used to produce butyl naphthyl ether. The oxygen in NaOH was used as a source of electrons to deprotonate the alcohol group on 2-naphthol to form the sodium naphthoxide ion. This reaction proceeded as the solution was initially refluxed. Next, n-butyl iodide was added to the RBF and was “attacked” by the negatively charged oxygen on the naphthoxide ion as a second reflux proceeded. This reaction could occur because iodide is a good leaving group- the naphthoxide ion “attacked” the carbon adjacent to iodide. This is an SN2 reaction because the naphthoxide ion (the nucleophile) attacks the carbon adjacent to the iodide (the electrophile) at the same time as the iodide leaves. This reaction produced butyl naphthyl ether and sodium iodide.
In the event where a retrovirus is killing domestic dogs and only one breed can be saved, it is important to save a breed that has more roles other than a being a house pet. A German Shepard and her puppies should be saved because intelligence, strength and role in society. Originally German Shepherds were established specifically as working dogs. They were bred to preserve traits that made them excellent sheep herders and protectors. They have a keen sense of smell, are very intelligent and have great speed and strength, which separates them from most dogs. They have the ability to learn simple tasks only after five repetitions. They can interpret instructions better than any other large breed making them perfect as police, guard and search and rescue dogs. Their keen sense of smell makes them the most widely used dog in a variety of scent-work roles. Cadaver searching, narcotics detection, explosive detection, and mine detection are just some of the reasons why German Shepherds are very important to have in our society. Without them our society would face many setbacks as well as affecting the safety of human lives.
Glycogen is a group of glucose molecules that is mainly stored in the liver and muscle cells. The liver regulates blood glucose levels and the break down of glucose provides energy (ATP) for muscle contractions. Glycogen has a branching structure that is optimized for efficient storage and release of glucose. The branching allows for many ends to add to and remove from. Glycogenin is a complex structure in the middle of this branching structure and serves as the core to which the braches are anchored to.
The purpose of this lab is to use fractional distillation to synthesize cyclohexene through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol with 85% phosphoric acid. A gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the purity of the distilled cyclohexene and the number of compounds present. Additionally, and infrared spectrum (IR) was used to determine if an alkene was present by viewing frequencies of light absorbance. Furthermore, a color test was preformed using 3% bromine in dichloromethane and an aqueous solution of 1% potassium permanganate and 10% sulfuric acid to determine if an alkene functional group is present.
Data examining the relationships between hours slept and GPA for students living on the island Enies Lobby. Scatterplots showed low correlation, however the line graphs display a similarity between Male and Female students, on top of a trend of more hours of sleep leading to a higher GPA.
This experiment aims to demonstrate principles of conditioning by blowing a puff of air at a planarian and measuring their response, which consist of a contraction followed by an extension. The methods include puffing 30 seconds of air every 45 seconds at the planarian 50 times. The planarians response will take about 1 second. You must place the planarian into a conditioning trough and let it adapt to the environment for 5-10 minutes. Pull back the syringe to 30 cc and blow a puff of air onto the head region of the planarian. Use a timer to measure the time between air puffs and record the data using (+) if the animal contracted, (-) if the animal did not, and (T) if the animal turned and swan the other direction. As a second experiment, you condition the planarians to minimize the amount of times they turn in the opposite direction by continuing the number of air puffs until the turning decreases.
The second article describes planarians and their habits. They are slimy flatworms that prey on earthworms, slugs, snails and soil arthropods. The slimy appearance is from mucus secretion that helps them keep their body moist as well as movement. They prefer the dark, cool temperatures and require high humidity because they die quickly if it looses 45% of its body moisture. This is why with the rain come land planarians because it increases the humidity and allows planarians to come to the soil.
Faber B. With the Rain Come Land Planaria. 2015 Nov 30 [accessed 2017 Oct 20]. http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=19531
Can Planaria Learn. [accessed 2017 Oct 20]. https://biology.mit.edu/sites/default/files/Learning%20and%20Memory.pdf
The abuse of prescription medications is thought to be a relatively prevalent phenomenon amongst younger adults, specifically those enrolled in college or university. A 2006-2007 survey by the NSDUH concluded that college students between the ages of 18-22 were at least twice as likely as non-college students of the same age to abuse Adderall, a stimulant used in the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy; this drug is oftentimes abused as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. The NSDUH conducted a follow up study in 2013 in which over 55,000 Americans were surveyed with regards to whether they had ever taken Adderall without a prescription. Participants between the ages of 18 and 22 were also asked to indicate whether they were enrolled in college. It was hypothesized that the results of this study would support the previous survey that showed college students were much more likely than non-college students of the same age to abuse Adderall. The results of this study suggested, however, that although younger adults of ages 18 to 22 were generally the most likely to abuse Adderall between all age groups, the difference between college and non-college students in this age range was not as significant. College students were only 1.3 times as likely to have taken Adderall without a prescription, which does not support the hypothesis that a tremendous difference would be observed. This study thus concludes that age, rather than college or university status, is the primary factor correlated with Adderall abuse, and that younger adults in general were the most likely to have taken the drug without a prescription.
For this experiment we used sucrose as our inhibitor. We repeated the first experiment keeping the concentrations the same by lowering the volume of the buffer from 3.5 mL to 3 mL. We added five concentrations of the ONPG, 33.2 mM, 26.56 mM, 19.92 mM, 13.28 mM, 6.64 mM, to five different tubes along with .5 mL of sucrose and .5 mL of the enzyme. Once the enzyme was added we timed each reaction at each different concentration for 100 seconds and stopped each reaction by adding .5 mL of sodium carbonate. After taking the spectrophotometer reading which measured its absorbance, we determined the rate of the reaction and graphed our data.
Many factors contributed to the differences between the original and replicate figures. First, it was not stated in the methods the placement of each photo in the multi panel figure. Nor were the order and font size of the letters stated. Also, due to the life cycles of plants, it is possible that flowers could have died or been altered by environmental factors such as rain, wind, or pollinators. In addition, the photos could have been taken with different devices and at different times of the day resulting in less quality and different coloration of the photos. The methods give an approximation of how close to hold the camera away from the flower; however, the differences in approximation could result in slight alterations in the photos. The temperature, wind, and climate can cause differences in the appearance of flowers. Since the photos were taken weeks apart it is possible that factors such as human interaction, animal interaction, weather and the own plant’s life cycle could cause changes of a flower resulting in the inability to replicate an exact photo.