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Korsakoff's syndrome- #3

Submitted by jjaneiro on Fri, 12/08/2017 - 12:19

Substance abuse disorder is a categorized disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association. Depending on the substance being abused, there is increased risk of developing other serious diseases. One such syndrome is Korsakoff’s syndrome, which is seen in long-term abusers of alcohol. This syndrome is categorized by individuals developing anterograde and retrograde amnesia as a result of developing lesions on the brain. These lesions arise from the depletion of B-vitamins, specifically thiamine, in the brain. Anterograde amnesia is a type of amnesia in which the individual is unable to form new memories or remember new information, yet his or her long-term memory remains intact. Retrograde amnesia, on the other hand, is just the opposite. Individuals with retrograde amnesia cannot remember long-term information, even their own identity. Because of the seriousness of this syndrome, with the inclusion of substance abuse disorder in the DSM-5, it makes it easier for people struggling with substance abuse to receive the psychiatric help to overcome their addiction. This is especially critical for preventing the development of illnesses and syndromes associated with long-term substance abuse, such as Korsakoff’s syndrome.

 

comp. vert. anatomy notes- adrenal glands

Submitted by jjaneiro on Thu, 11/30/2017 - 12:51

A portal system is a blood system that runs from one capillary bed to another without passing through the heart. 

The adrenal glands are attached to the rostral part of the kidneys in mammals. They are comprised of two parts, the cortex and the medulla. The medulla of the adrenal gland is a derivative of neural crest cells. The cortex has three layers that are responsible for dealing with different hormones. The inner layer closest to the medulla is the zona reticulata, which deals with androgens. The medial zone is the zona fasciculata, which deals with glucocorticoids. The outermost zone is the zona glomerulosa which is associated with aldosterone. 

Endocrine system glands #2

Submitted by jjaneiro on Thu, 11/30/2017 - 12:23

The endocrine system functions by using glands throughout the body to excrete hormones that activate certain pathways that are crucial for development and survival. The endocrine system also controls pathways that maintain the circadian rhythm. One such gland is the pineal gland. This gland is found in the brain. The pineal gland is involved in the production of melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep/wake cycle. The production of melatonin by the pineal gland is controlled by light. In the presence of light, the production of melatonin is prevented. When the sun is setting, or when an animal is in a dark environment, in the absence of light the pineal gland becomes active and produces melatonin which makes the animal tired and prepares the body for sleep. The production and prevention of melatonin is on a 24-hour cycle. This is called the circadian rhythm. Throughout the 24 hour period, the levels of melatonin in the body rises and falls with the animal's sleep/wake cycle. The pineal gland is part of the endocrine system that is responsible for maintaining this cycle. 

proposal methods rewritten- draft

Submitted by jjaneiro on Wed, 11/08/2017 - 10:35

Eight groups of students in the Fall 2017 Writing in Biology course at UMass Amherst will receive 3 planarians and a specific chemical with which to test planarian regeneration capabilities. Each group will bisect the planarian at one-third of its length, and place it in a cup with their chemical. Each planarian will be placed in a different concentration of chemical. This will allow for observations of degree of regeneration possible with different amounts of chemical present. The groups let the planarians regenerate for a period of fourteen days, as this is the average time it takes a planarian to regenerate (Lobo, et al).

During this period of time, the planarians will be fed a typical amount of food on a regular schedule.They will be kept in a dark environment, such as a cabinet. The groups will measure each planarian before and after they make their incision, after seven days from the incision, and again after the fourteen days to be able to judge if any regrowth has occurred. The groups will record their data on a master Excel spreadsheet, that will allow for whole-class data sharing and comparison. The eight chemicals that we will be testing are: bleach (in a mild concentration), acid (in a mild concentration), fertilizer, laundry detergent, motor oil, gasoline, herbicide, and pesticide. The data will be made into individual graphs for each chemical.

 

writing for persuasion draft 2

Submitted by jjaneiro on Thu, 11/02/2017 - 16:44

Given the gravity of the situation, the breed of dog that should be given the vaccine is one that humans rely on for important tasks, rather than for their “cuteness” or popularity. It is for this purpose that the breed that should be saved is the German Shepherd. The German Shepherd is useful to humans in many ways, and without this breed, humans would be at a deficit in many fields. Many people rely on German Shepherds daily for herding. Without these dogs, their jobs and livelihoods would be at a loss. There are other breeds of dogs that herd; however, since it is only possible to save one breed of domestic dog, the Shepherds would be able to assume that role in the absence of the other herding breeds. 

    Aside from herding, German Shepherds are critical to humans for other important reasons. German Shepherds are most popular for their role on police forces for detecting drugs and explosives. These dogs sniff out illicit drugs that are being trafficked. Without their keen sense of smell, these drugs would go on into the hands of humans, and have the potential to kill. German Shepherds are also used on explosive-detecting task forces. Without these dogs, there would be a higher risk of explosives at public events, on airplanes, and other places where there is a high volume of activity and people. Shepherds in this field are responsible for making sure that dangerous explosives do not harm humans. Without them, it would be much more difficult to detect these devices, and it would potentially increase the number of incidents in which explosives are used to injure and kill people. 

    In the tragic event that an explosive is detonated and people are trapped in a building, there are German Shepherds on rescue task forces that would sniff out those people. This is an utterly important ability in the case of an event like this. Without the Shepherds’ ability to smell, the task forces would have a much more difficult time finding trapped people, and the number of people that they could not detect would increase. These dogs make it incredibly easy to find most missing and trapped people; this is an invaluable ability that is exclusively due to the dogs’ trainability and sense of smell. German Shepherds had a crucial role in recovering bodies in the attack on the World Trade Center in 2001. 

 

Writing for Persuasion draft

Submitted by jjaneiro on Wed, 11/01/2017 - 12:07

Given the gravity of the situation, the breed of dog that should be given the vaccine is one that humans rely on for important tasks, rather than for their “cuteness” or popularity. It is for this purpose that the breed that should be saved is the German Shepherd. The German Shepherd is useful to humans in many ways, and without this breed, humans would be at a deficit in many fields. Many people rely on German Shepherds daily for herding. Without these dogs, their jobs and livelihoods would be at a loss. There are other breeds of dogs that herd; however, since it is only possible to save one breed of domestic dog, the Shepherds would be able to assume that role in the absence of the other herding breeds. 

 

Skypiea Legend

Submitted by jjaneiro on Fri, 10/20/2017 - 15:19

Figure 1-3. GPA vs. Gender- Based on the trends in the graphs, it is apparent that the majority of females have higher GPAs than males with a few exceptions. 

Figure 4-6. Gender vs. Hours Slept per Week- This chart shows that the female population slept a greater number of hours than the males on average. This is apparent from the female curve being shifted to the right of the male curve. This indicates that the max number of hours slept by both genders is similar, but more females on average slept more hours. 

Figure 7-9. Gender vs. Hours Studied per Week- This chart shows that the trend for amount of hours studied is quite similar in males and females. However, notice that the female curve is shifted over to the right of the male curve. This indicates that while the max number of hours studied by both genders was similar, on average, the female population had more members that studied a higher number of hours. Based on the rightward shifts of the female Sleep and Studying charts and the general trend of Females having higher GPAs, it is apparent that there is a correlation between the number of hours studied and slept and GPA. 

Comparative anatomy study guide notes

Submitted by jjaneiro on Mon, 10/16/2017 - 21:07

The evolutionary relationship between organisms can be discussed in terms of groups, either monophyletic or paraphyletic. A monophyletic group is a taxon (group) of organisms that includes all known descendants of a hypothetical ancestor, with no outgroup members. This group is arranged as a hierarchy of unique similarities (also called characters, phylogenetic homologies, or synapomorphies). Examples of these synapomorphies are hair and mammary glands in mammals, feathers for birds, jaws for gnathostomes, and the presence of bones or osteichthyans. All of these characters are unique to the clade, or group, and involve no other species that does not share a common ancestor. 

On the contrary, a paraphyletic group is a group that does not include all of the known descendents of a particular common ancestor. An example of a paraphyletic group is including all amniote subgroups, excluding mammals and aves. This is paraphyletic because mammals and aves belong to the clade amniota, but in our category were not included. It is deemed unhelpful to look at paraphyletic groups, as they exclude species that share a common ancestor. It is more helpful to discuss evolutionary relationships in terms of monophyletic groups as you can see the whole evolutionary "picture", instead of missing pieces of it.

There are specific terms that are used to describe further the relationships between organisms in a cladogram. Terms such as apomorphy, synapomorphy, pleisiomorphy, and sympleisiomorphy, are used to describe the origin and relationship of certain characters of a species or clade. A synapomorphic character is a derived character (meaning evolved from the ancestral character) of a particular monophyletic taxon that is characteristic of a species. For example, feathers is an synapomorphy of the class Aves. The term apomorphy is often divided into two categories: "autapomorphy" and "synapomorphy", with autapomorphy describing terminal taxa and synapomorphy describing monophyletic groups of taxa. 

Comparative Anatomy notes

Submitted by jjaneiro on Wed, 10/04/2017 - 10:08

Gymnophiona is a clade of amphibians closely related to frogs and salamanders, resembling snakes. The word "Gymnophiona" is derived from Greek, "gymnos" meaning "naked", and "ophis" meaning "snake". Therefore, Gymnophiona translates to "naked snake" in Greek. Certain species in Gymnophiona have offspring that engage in dermophagy, or skin-eating. The mother of these species will produce extra epidermis tissue so that when her offspring are born they can eat her skin as means of obtaining nutrients in the early days of their life. This is an evolutionary adaptation of the epidermis and dermis that allows for better chance of survival of the offspiring. In conditions where exterior food sources are limited or non-existent, this adaptation provides a mode of survival in dire conditions.    

Another type of amphibian that has an epidermal-dermal adaptation is Gyrhinophilus porphyriticus, or the spring salamander. This species of salamander breathes through its skin. It is able to do this by having highly vascularized dermal tissue and living in a moist environment. Spring salamanders belong to a family called Plethodontidae, or the "lungless" salamanders. Becuase these species breathe through their skin, they lack lungs completely. 

 

 

Replicate vs. Original image differences outline

Submitted by jjaneiro on Fri, 09/29/2017 - 14:27

Figure A. -  they are at different amounts of zoom, and are showing different areas of campus

                  the replicate figure has labels from google earth, where are the original does not have any labels of buildings and so forth

Figure B. - the angle of the photograph of the fungus is different, the zoom amount is also different

                  the lighting is different in the two photos, the foliage on the ground vary in color and amount between the two photos   

Figure C. -  the bar graph elements in figure C are in a different order in each figure

                   figure C is much wider in the replicate

                  the axes labels on the graphs are different

                  the title of the graph is either nonexistent, or not visible in the arrangement of the original figure           

overall-  the size of the labels on the photos are different

              the size of the figures are different in the replicate and the original, the replicate figures are wider, whereas the original figures are narrower

 

               

 

 

 

 

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