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Creatine Lab Introduction

Submitted by cberg on Fri, 09/22/2017 - 08:20

Creatine is one of the fast twitch muscles’ most basic form of energy storage. In the muscles, the creatine molecules bond to a phosphate group, which later provides the muscles with an immediate source of ATP replenishment during the first few seconds of intense exercise. By having a readily avalible supply of phosphate, ADP can quickly pair with a creatine's phosphate group, thereby forming new ATP. People supplement with creatine because studies have shown that increasing the body’s available supply of creatine phosphate can promote a faster regeneration of ATP between sets of high-intensity exercise. By allowing more sets to be accomplished, the theory is that combining the supplement with exercise will lead allow the maintenance of a higher training intensity throughout workouts, and therefore an increase in muscle mass. 

The objective of this lab experiment is to observe the effects of creatine supplementation on the muscle of a mussel. Becuase the inside of the mussel's shell is composed of smooth muslce, we are interested to see whether the supplementation will have the same effect that it does on skeletal muscle in the human body. By studying the amplitude of contraction and duration of contraction with and without creatine supplementation, we hope to conclude whether or not the creatine causes a noticeable difference in the contraction of the mussel's muscle. 

We predict that supplementing the muscle with creatine will allow the muscle twitch to reach a higher maximum stimulus amplitude and achieve a greater contraction time. 

Thoughts on the Introduction of the Methods Project

Submitted by cberg on Thu, 09/21/2017 - 14:09

The emphasis of this class activity is to communicate and display the importance of replicability in scientific research papers. For this reason, I put a considerable amount of thought into which species of organism I wanted to do my project on. My first thought was to use sqirrels, because they are seen frequently on campus, especially in the fall because they are collecting fallen acorns. However, I decided against this because they are very fast moving and I thought this may make it might be challenging to capture high-quality photographs. I ruled out chipmunks for the same reason, and because I see chipmunks less frequently than I see squirrels on campus. 

I thought about how I'd be able to capture quality photographs if I used the cats that I see on my walk home from classes everyday. They are very friendly and it is easy to approach them, which would make taking pictures easy. However, I realized that many students do not ever walk by the area of campus that I walk through to get home, and I also was unsure who owned the cats and realized that they may be brought inside at the start of cold weather. 

Finally, I settled on using ducks for my project. They are frequently seen in the campus pond. Since the campus pond is in the center of campus I figured it would be a location that many students pass frequently, and would therefore allow easy replication of my photography. In addition to convinient location, the ducks are fairly slow-moving which allows for quality photography even with a device as simple as iPhone, which is the only camera I have access to. 

Discovery of Auxin

Submitted by cberg on Thu, 09/21/2017 - 13:51

Plant cell starts out in a cube shape, but when the plant is intoduced to a stimulus such as light, the cell walls elongate only on one axis of the plant stem. This causes the plant to elongate and bend in only one direction, towards the stimulus, and the process is called differential cell elongation. In Darwin's foil experiemetns, he used seedlings to observe this phenomenon, because seedlings bend toward light. When he put foil on the tip of the seedlings no bending occurred. However, when he put foil on the part of the seedling that physically bends, bending did occurr.

 

The outcome of this experiement caused him to wonder what would happen if the tip of the seedling was removed all together. He predicted that the plant would not be able to respond to the light and would stay in an upright position.

 

The hypothesis was that the tip of the plant made a substance which diffused down the side of the stem that gets elongated during the bending, and causes cell elongation there. To test the hypothesis, light was shined onto the plant and then the tip of the plant was cut off and placed onto agar block so that the substance could diffuse from the tip into the block. Afterwards, the substance was taken from the block and put onto one side of a stem of different plants which had their tips removed had not been exposed to light. The addition of the substance from the agar blocks caused bending in these plants! Whichever side the agar block was placed on caused cell elongation of the stem along that side. This newly discovered substance was given the name "auxin."

 

EMT Legal Medical Case

Submitted by cberg on Thu, 09/21/2017 - 13:39

In this medical case, a woman prematurely gave birth in her home. Afterwards, emergency responders arrived and transported her to Harlem Hospital Center. When emergency responders loaded her into the ambulance the woman was fine and happy, and was even able to take selfies with her husband and newborn child. However, within the next 12 hours, she was pronounced dead.

I do not believe that there was any negligence performed by the EMTs on this case. However, a claim was filed against the doctors on the case for malpractice and medical negligence. The case would be an example of misfeasance because the procedures the doctors performed were legal but they were inadequately performed and resulted in patient harm rather than improving the patient’s condition. 

This has taught me that it is very important to know my scope of practice. If the EMTs on this case had acted outside of their scope of practice and had tried to perform the procedures that the doctors attempted, this woman’s death would’ve been blamed on them. In that case, the negligence would have been an even worse lawsuit because it not only would’ve been a case of malpractice but also a case of failure to abide by scope of practice and therefore an instance of performing illegal medical procedures that the EMTs were not qualified to attempt. 

 

 

 

Creatine Phosphate Lab Design Experiment

Submitted by cberg on Thu, 09/21/2017 - 13:35

Creatine is one of the fast twitch muscles’ most basic form of energy storage. It works by bonding to a phosphate group to provide the muscles with an immediate source of ATP replenishment during the first few seconds of intense exercise. People supplement with creatine because studies have shown that increasing the body’s available supply of creatine phosphate can promote a faster regeneration of ATP between sets of high-intensity exercise. By allowing more sets to be accomplished, the theory is that combining the supplement with exercise will lead allow the maintenance of a higher training intensity throughout workouts, and therefore an increase in muscle mass. 

The objective of this lab experiment is to observe the effects of creatine supplementation on the mussel’s muscle. By studying the amplitude of contraction and duration of contraction with and without creatine supplementation, we hope to conclude whether or not the creatine causes a noticeable difference in the contraction of the muscle. 

We predict that supplementing the muscle with creatine will allow the muscle twitch to reach a higher maximum stimulus amplitude and achieve a greater contraction time. 

Yesterday

Submitted by cberg on Fri, 09/15/2017 - 15:42

I make a significant effort to maintain good health, which can sometimes be challenging with a busy college routine. I try to make it to the gym four or five times a week, and make healthy meals whenever I can. Yesterday I woke up at 6:30 for the gym, because I knew if I didn't get a workout in before class I wouldn’t end up going that day. I set my alarm for 5:30 but had a tough time getting up and finally forced myself out of bed after an hour of hitting the snooze button on my phone alarm. After getting dressed in gym clothes, washing my face, and brushing my teeth, I drove to the gym and parked in the pay station student lot. I started my workout with core exercises, followed by five sets of twenty repetitions on the leg press. I finished my workout with lunges and some jump squats so that I could get a little bit of cardio in. After driving home I made myself a healthy breakfast of egg whites and wheat toast with avocado, as well we a protein shake. Then I showered and got dressed for class, feeling upbeat and energized from starting my morning in productive way. 

 

As a full time student, the majority of my day is dedicated to academics. Being a pre-med biology major requires a large time commitment, and I feel like I’m constantly in class or doing homework. Yesterday I had one of my easiest class schedules, with only two classes to attend. My first class was one I am taking with my younger sister, who is a freshman here. We did a partner activity together in class, and walked to our next classes together afterwards. In my second class I had a quiz that I felt like I scored fairly well on, since I had spent a good amount of time studying the night before. I was out of classes by 1:00 in the afternoon, which gave me a nice break to relax and also to get some of my homework done. 

 

Aside from academics, my biggest commitment is volunteering. I volunteer ten hours a week in three different hospitals. Yesterday my volunteer work was at Cooley Dickinson hospital. I left my house to drive to the hospital around 3:30 in the afternoon. My shift began at 4pm and I started off by organizing patient files and setting up new binders for the nurses and doctors to use. I did some other office organization tasks such as filing the printers and copiers with paper, and cleaning the desk drawers. I then went around the medical-surgical floor and filled cabinets with gowns and gloves for staff and visitors to use as precautions when entering the rooms of sick patients. Afterwards, I stocked patient’s closets with toothbrushes, toothpaste, hair combs, soap, lotion, and socks. I finished the shift by distributing dinner trays to the patients.

 

My favorite activities of my daily routine are the times I spend with my roommates. On any typical day I spend all of my free time with them. Yesterday I had breakfast with my roommate in the morning, and then we walked to campus together from our house. Her classes ended before mine so she picked me up from my afternoon class and we got Dunkin' Donuts iced coffees together. I made lunch and ate with three of my roommates who were home. We listened to music and laughed during lunch and told each other about how our days had been so far. Afterwards, I drove one of my roommates to class then came back home and did some homework while I hung out with my other roommates who were still home. The end of my day was spent with my roommates as well; after I volunteered I came home and had dinner and a glass of wine with my roommates then we got dressed and ready together then spent a few hours hanging out with our other friends in downtown Amherst. 

 

Maggot Observation

Submitted by cberg on Thu, 09/14/2017 - 14:52

The bug is hairless and wingless and seems as though it may metamorphasize in later stages of developmetn. It seems to curl into a ball for protection, and does so in response to movement of the cup that it is in. It is clinging onto a pieve of material that is in the cup with it. The material is comparable to the string-like pieces that you find underneath an orange peel, but its identification is unclear and I cannot determine whether the bug is eating it or jsut wrapping itself around it. 

So far the bug has only stayed in the indernation surrounding the perimeter of the cup. It has not crawled out towards the middle of the cup, and I assume this behavior is instinctual, because of the protection that the wall of the cup offers over the vulnerability of the open center of hte cup. Most of the time, the bug does not move its body in a manner that leads to any displacemetn. Rather, it moves only its head and front-most body segments in a rotational motion. Its head repeadetly circles both leftwards and rightwards, and up and down. The bug seems to be gathering information about its surroundings, and searching for environmental stimuli, yet it is interesting that it makes no changes to its behavior or position even after long periods of doing so. Maybe this is because the cup contains neither threatening stimuli that the bug needs to move away from nor appealing stimuli that the bug is attracted towards. I would be interested to see how quickly the bug's behavior and motion would change if foor or a predator were introduced into the cup. I wonder how long the bug would continue to perfomr the rotational movement of its head before it picked up on the newly introduced stimulus. Maybe the reason behind the head movement does not involve environmental sensing at all, and the bug is instincually programmed to exhibit this motion for a different reason altogether. 

The bug is about 20mm in length, but rarely is found in its fully extended conformation. Rather, it is often bent or curled in a postion that seems to offer it more shelter and less suface-area exposure to the external environment. This position seems reasonable for the bug to adopt because it appears that its body is made of a soft material that would not offer it much protection on its own. The bug does not have any sort of shell or hard exoskelton. Its lack of wings also limits the bug in how quickly it could escape from potential threats. Therefore, it seems as through staying tightly coild is the bug's best defense mechanism. 

Maggot Observations

Submitted by cberg on Fri, 09/08/2017 - 15:23

The bug is hairless and wingless and seems as though it may metamorphasize in later stages of developmetn. It seems to curl into a ball for protection, and does so in response to movement of the cup that it is in. It is clinging onto a pieve of material that is in the cup with it. The material is comparable to the string-like pieces that you find underneath an orange peel, but its identification is unclear and I cannot determine whether the bug is eating it or jsut wrapping itself around it. 

So far the bug has only stayed in the indernation surrounding the perimeter of the cup. It has not crawled out towards the middle of the cup, and I assume this behavior is instinctual, because of the protection that the wall of the cup offers over the vulnerability of the open center of hte cup. Most of the time, the bug does not move its body in a manner that leads to any displacemetn. Rather, it moves only its head and front-most body segments in a rotational motion. Its head repeadetly circles both leftwards and rightwards, and up and down. The bug seems to be gathering information about its surroundings, and searching for environmental stimuli, yet it is interesting that it makes no changes to its behavior or position even after long periods of doing so. Maybe this is because the cup contains neither threatening stimuli that the bug needs to move away from nor appealing stimuli that the bug is attracted towards. I would be interested to see how quickly the bug's behavior and motion would change if foor or a predator were introduced into the cup. I wonder how long the bug would continue to perfomr the rotational movement of its head before it picked up on the newly introduced stimulus. Maybe the reason behind the head movement does not involve environmental sensing at all, and the bug is instincually programmed to exhibit this motion for a different reason altogether. 

The bug is about 20mm in length, but rarely is found in its fully extended conformation. Rather, it is often bent or curled in a postion that seems to offer it more shelter and less suface-area exposure to the external environment. This position seems reasonable for the bug to adopt because it appears that its body is made of a soft material that would not offer it much protection on its own. The bug does not have any sort of shell or hard exoskelton. Its lack of wings also limits the bug in how quickly it could escape from potential threats. Therefore, it seems as through staying tightly coild is the bug's best defense mechanism. 

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