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Zebrafish lab intro

Submitted by cberg on Mon, 11/20/2017 - 18:33

In the paper Growth and metabolism of larval zebrafish; effects of swim training, it was discovered that once zebrafish hit a certain age it is more difficult for them to acclimate to chronic swimming because their rate of oxygen consumption does not adjust to conditions of hypoxia as readily. In this specific experiment, that age was 21 days old. The data found that fish who had reached this age had significantly higher routine oxygen consumption and mass-specific routine oxygen consumption values after 8 and 11 days of being trained to swim at various numbers of body lengths per second, when compared to fish only 96 hours or 9 days old.

We found this paper to be interesting because it compared metabolic rates of fish based on their age and stage of development. The findings applied to the experiment conducted in our lab because all fish we used were adults, and therefore greater than 21 days old. Therefore, because our fish would be less able to adjust to hypoxic conditions, it would be very possible to observe changes in their metabolic rate based on significant differences in their oxygen consumption over time. We decided to apply this knowledge towards an experiment in which we would examine the effects of gender socialization on adult zebrafish.

Zebrafish lab abstract

Submitted by cberg on Fri, 11/17/2017 - 15:12

This experiment was conducted in order to observe the effects of sex-specific socialization on zebrafish metabolic rates. We wanted to observe whether zebrafish metabolisms would change in accordance with the gender of fish with which they shared an environment. We hypothesized that more energy is consumed during opposite-sex socialization because sexual arousal causes the fish to exert an excess amount of energy. We therefore predicted that if we put a male and female fish in an environment together we would find that the two would have a higher metabolic rate than a hypothetical sum of the metabolic rates of those two fish when in same-sex environments. However, our data did not end up being consistent with this prediction because of cofounding variables. Our trials were not accurate representations of sex-specific socialization because of overuse and exhaustion of the fish, and the time of day at which the trials were conducted. It would be important to repeat the experiment with greater recovery periods in between trials, and in the early day, during the period of morning at which zebrafish mate naturally. This would allow a more accurate representation of opposite-gender socialization, and therefore a conclusive analysis of the effect on the fish’s’ metabolic rates.  

HUMDEV 270; planning math activity for 2nd graders

Submitted by cberg on Tue, 11/14/2017 - 11:05

If we were to propose a math activity for a small group of 2nd grade children, we would teach them to add and subtract from 20 by using bags of skittles. Each child would start with 20 skittles of different colors. We would first have the children count and remove all of their purple skittles from their desk. After removing the purple skittles we would have the children count how many skittles remained in their pile. This concept would teach them that subtracting, say, 7 purple skittles from a pile of 20 skittles would leave them with 13 skittles. Afterwards, we would have the children put the purple skittles back into their pile. We would then have half of the children remove all of the orange skittles from their neighbor and put them into their own pile. This would teach the children that adding, say, 5 orange skittles into a pile that started with 20 skittles would give them 25 skittles. At the same time, the children that had 5 orange skittles removed from their pile would see that removing 5 orange skittles from their pile of 20 skittles would leave them with 15 skittles. We would then have the children switch so that the children who hadn’t practiced with addition yet would get to add skittles into their pile. We would continue this activity with different skittle colors until the children were able to predict the change to the number of skittles in their pile before actually adding or removing any skittles from it. Each time the children were able to accurately predict a change without physically seeing any added or removed skittles, they would get to eat a skittle from their pile. 

start of methods

Submitted by cberg on Sun, 11/12/2017 - 15:23

There will be a total of 72 planarians that will be divided equally into eight groups. Each group labeled 1-8 will experiment with the control environment and one of the eight experimental environments.

On Wednesday, November 15th, upon receiving 9 planarians, each group will distinguish 3 planarians for the control environment, 3 planarians for condition 1 of their experimental environment, and the last 3 planarians for condition 2 of their experimental environment.

Group 2, referenced in Table 1, will be experimenting with planarians in different intensities of light. This group will plate 3 petri dishes with Great Value Walmart water and label the dishes as “control,” “experimental condition 1,” and “experimental condition 2,” with the respective planarians placed into each petri dish. Starting with the control dish, one planarian will be measured at its fully extended length and this length will be recorded. After measurement, the group will cut this planarian exactly in half. The tail half of the planarian will then be placed into a condiment cup labeled “control planarian #1,” which will be filled halfway with Great Value Walmart water. The group will repeat this process for the remaining two planarians for the control group, labeled planarians #2 and #3. These three cups will be placed in an area of Room 301 that receives normal indoor light exposure. Next, the first planarian in the experimental condition 1 petri dish will be measured at fully extended length and will then be cut in half. This planarian will be placed in a condiment cup labeled “Lamp Light Environment Planarian #1,” which will be halfway filled with Great Value Walmart water. This group will repeat this process for the remaining two planarians in the lamp light experimental condition, labeled planarians #2 and #3. These three cups will then be placed directly under lamp light in room 301. Finally, the first planarian in the experimental condition 2 petri dish will be measured at fully extended length and then cut in half. This planarian will be placed in a condiment cup labeled “Dark Environment Planarian #1,” which will be halfway filled with Great Value Walmart water. This will be repeated for the remaining two planarians in the dark experimental condition, labeled planarians #2 and #3. These three cups will then be placed underneath a cardboard box in room 301.

 

Expected Results

Submitted by cberg on Fri, 11/10/2017 - 11:11

In the experimet exploring environmental effects on planarian motility, a low concentration of sucrose was associated with increased average velocity. However, high concentrations of sucrose were associated with decreased planarian motility and a slower average velocity. Some of the planarians in the high-concentration sucrose environments were unable to survive. Based on this finding, we expect that the lowest concentration of splenda may have a positive effect on head regeneration. However, higher concentrations of Splenda may cause reduced regeneration rate. The planarians in highest concentration Splenda may lose their ability to regenerate altogether.

In this same experiement, the planarians that were placed in energy drink were unable to survive. Because caffeine is the major ingredient in energy drinks, this finding leads us to predict that the caffeine environments in our experiment will have a negative effect the planarian's ability to regeneration. Since our concentration of caffeein will be low, the planarians will hopefully still be able to survive in the caffeinated environment. However, if able to survive, we predict that the planarian's regeneration rate will be slowed or reduced completely.

    Because brown planarians are a freshwater species, we expect that the salt environments will have a negative effect on their ability to regenerate. This species of planarians are not evolved or adapted to saltwater environments so we expect they will be unable to complete their basic life functions as efficiently when placed salt. They may regenerate at a slower rate, or be completely unable to regenerate.

 

Childrens book class activity

Submitted by cberg on Thu, 11/09/2017 - 11:14
 

In order to read this book independently, the child would need to be in the developing phase of the reading continuum. This phase is from ages 5-7. At this point, the child has reading skills that would be applicable to reading this book such as relying on illustration and print. This reading skill would be useful because the majority of this book is made up of pictures of animals talking to each other, with only about five words on each page. In this phase the child also is able to recognize simple words, which are the only ones used in this book. Also, in this phase the child has the reading skill of being able to recognize word sounds such as rhymes. Each page of the book consists of a rhyme, so the child would be able to use this skill while reading the book independently. Finally, in the developing phase a child is able to make predictions about what may happen as they are reading. This book leads up to a fairly predictable ending in which an animal finally has a llama as its mother, and while reading this book independently a 5-7 year old may be able to accurately foresee this ending. 

At this age a child is cognitively completing the pre operational stage. This means that the child is beginning to be able to infer what someone else is thinking. This skill may relate to the child's ability to predict how the book will end. Just as well, at this age a child is still very involved in animism, which is the belief that inanimate objects or animals think, feel, and communicate in the same way that humans do. This cognitive belief/developmental marking relates to reading this book because it is a story about animals discussing and describing their mothers to each other. 

Overall, both the reading and cognitive skills of a child in this age group would help the child be able to read this book independently. However, the reading skills that are developed at this age are not exactly the same as the cognitive skills. The reading skills of a 5-7 year old relate more to the strategies a child uses to read, while the cognitive skills relate to the way the child views the world, which the child continues to apply during his reading of the book. 

background

Submitted by cberg on Thu, 11/09/2017 - 10:05

Before beginning our proposal we looked into the work of Xiaoguang Chen and Cunshuan Xu who studied the protein expression of planarian heads during regeneration. These scientists used two-dimensional electrophoresis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze the changes in protein expression from 6 to 168 hours after planarian heads were amputated. We were also interested in an experiment performed by Jennifer Navarrete, Azion Hyman, and Ashaunti Hyman in which they aimed to analyze the environmental effects on planarian behavior and motility. In their experiment they observed the movement and behavior of planarians exposed to sucrose, caffeine, and an energy drink, compared to movement and behavior in the control environment of spring water.

    The design of the protein analysis experiment was not a feasible project for us to replicate due to limited technological resources. However, we did want to implement the idea of regeneration analysis over time into our project. We were also interested in the environmental effects proposed by the second experiment, so we decided to combine the two ideas. We were interested in studying whether different background environments had an effect on the rate of head regeneration or on the planarians’ ability to regenerate.

 

Expected results draft

Submitted by cberg on Wed, 11/08/2017 - 14:06

In the environmental effects experiment, a low concentration of sucrose was associated with increased planarian motility and average velocity of movement. However, high concentrations of sucrose were associated with decreased planarian motility and average velocity of movement, and even death in some of the planarians. Based on this finding, we expect that the lowest concentration of splenda may have a positive effect on head regeneration. In a low concentration the splenda may cause a faster regeneration rate. High-concentration Splenda environments may have a negative effect on the planarians’ ability to regenerate. The planarians in high-concentration Splenda may generate at a slower rate than the planarians in water, and the planarians in the highest concentration of splenda may lose their ability to regenerate altogether.

 

class activity draft

Submitted by cberg on Tue, 11/07/2017 - 10:05

The Roaring Twenties were a revolutionary time for women, in which they smoked in public, expressed their sexuality, and conducted rallies for women’s suffrage in an effort to gain rights that they previously lacked. It may seem strange to imagine that these actions were necessary. Because of the significant progress that has been made, we often forget that women struggled for basic rights such as freedom of dress and the right to divorce. While women have made immense progress in reaching equality, we still have a long way to go. Perhaps the largest struggle we can’t seem to beat is inequality in the workplace. According to a study at Lehigh University, there is no longer an educational gap between women and men - in fact, women are even more likely to earn a bachelor’s degree. With this in mind, we must ask ourselves what holds women back from equality. What are we doing wrong?

EMT Shock Types

Submitted by cberg on Mon, 11/06/2017 - 13:47

There are four different types of shock that basic EMTs should be able to recognize. Hypovolemic shock is the first category, and it can be either hemorragic (if it is due to the patient bleeding heavily) or non-hemmorrhagic (if the patient is not bleeding.) Hypovolemic shock involves rapid body fluid loss that resuls in inadequate perfusion to the body's tissues. Hemmoragic hypovolemic shock can be due to either external or internal bleeding, which non-hemmorhagic hypovolemic shock can be due to severe dehydration, obstruction,  or any other cause of rapid non-bleeding fluid loss. Secondly, distributive shock is abnormal blood vessel tone which results in abnormal flow of blood through the vessels, and inadequate blood distribution to the tissues. The three types of distributtive shock are sepsis, anaphylaxis, and neurogenic. Sepsis involves the patient experiencing a severe infection, anaphylaxis invovles the patient experiencing a severe allergic reaction with respiratory distress, and neurogenic involves some type of head injury or spinal cord trauma. The third category of shock is cardiogenic shock which can either be an electrical or mechanical issue with the patient's heart. This type of shock is likely present if the patient's heart rate is less than 40 or greater than 150. Finally, obstructive shock occurs when large volumes of blood are restricted from flow through the patient's body. 

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