Diabetes is an illness in which the level of glucose in one’s blood is too high. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2, with type 2 being more common. Type 1 diabetes is when the pancreas is unable to make insulin, while type 2 diabetes is when insulin is not produced or utilized properly or at a high enough efficiency. Type 1 diabetes is a disease that you are born with; you cannot develop type 1 diabetes over time. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, can be developed during one’s lifetime. The risk of acquiring type 2 diabetes is increased if you eat poorly, don’t exercise, are older, or have a family history of diabetes. Prediabetes is also a documented condition, in which the blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to classify the patient as diabetic.
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Folded proteins are crucial seeing as they are the functional unit of the cell; however, in their unfolded state the proteins become dysfunctional and therefore cannot perform the tasks within the cell that are necessary. Therefore, we wanted to determine the differences between the natural state and the denatured state as it relates to the equilibrium constant for the folding-unfolding reaction. In addition, we wanted to understand the differences in energy between the functional and dysfunctional state in order to determine protein stability. To determine this, we denatured GFP, a green fluorescent protein, using heat and let it re-nature and then added different concentrations of a denaturing solution, urea, to the protein. Using different levels of denatured proteins, we were able to calculate the K, equilibrium constant, for different urea and GFP concentrations, and thus able to determine the stability, or lack thereof through calculating Gibb’s free energy. We found that the highest level of urea concentration, and therefore the most unfolded protein, was the most unstable as represented by the negative G value. Furthermore, when the GFP protein was in a higher energy state, it was less stable. This data helps further our understanding of the property differences between folded and unfolded proteins, and can potentially provide deeper insight into features of proteins.
Based on the figures above, our prediction that an increase of JH hormone would cause an increase in the number of adult flies found in our sample was tentatively supported. We did find that a higher percentage of flies were adults in the JH treated vial; therefore indicating that the increase JH hormone did cause a sped up life cycle stage of the molting and hatching phases; however, the reduced number of flies in the JH vial in comparison to the water vials raises concerns that the population sample was not big enough to draw a conclusion or support our hypothesis. The water sample had 4 adults flies in comparison to the 3 in the JH sample, indicating that perhaps the reason there was a higher percentage of adult flies in the JH sample was simply because there were less flies and therefore the likelihood that the percentage of adult flies would be higher in the JH sample is greater. The reason we believed that the JH sample might produce more adults is because of the increasing JH hormone found in the molting and hatching stage during the life cycle of the flies; therefore, should the JH already be at a higher concentration early on in the hatching phase, the flies should progress through the phases at a quicker rate (Bownes and Rembold, 1987) However, there is some evidence that is contrary to our hypothesis. The overall larger sizes of the JH treated flies indicates that the flies had a longer life span and therefore had more time to grow larger, which would promote the idea that the JH solution decreased the rate at which the flies went through the life cycle.
I want to photograph a white ash outside of morrill. The scientific name for this Fraxinus Americana. Cavity excavating and nesting birds often use the white ash and it is native to eastern and central North America. The white ash is approximately 80 feet and has Seminole flowers. It is a fruit bearing tree. I would need to control for seasonal factors so the tree doesn’t start foliage. In addition, time of day could impact the tree and weather could affect how the tree looks as well!
Hormone signaling is essential towards understanding many mechanisms, such as growth, in organisms. In the Drosophila fly, these hormones are essential in progressing through the fly life cycle. Hormones are peptides that transmit chemical messages to cells and therefore have a specific effect on these cells. Drosophila flies are therefore useful as model organisms when studying hormones, specifically hormones affecting life cycles, due to their quick generation time and use of hormones to progress through the life cycle.
For example, JH, juvenile hormone, progressively increases in the hatching and molting phase, and then decreases during pupation. In contrast, another hormone, Ecdysone, is present during the pupa stage of the drosophila life cycle.
Brown Striped Cat
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A light brown base coat cat with darker brown detailing staring directly into the camera
The activities that I participated in the most fall under the category of self care, which I loosely defined as activities I do to make sure I stay healthy, alive, and presentable. For example, I described my brief make up routing as applying foundation concealer and mascara, all of which fell under self care. I then went to make breakfast, which is also essential to my well being in addition to getting a snack at Harvest and preparing and eating dinner. I also went to target, which I described as self care, in order to maintain an adequate food supply in my apartment. Finally, I ended my day with going to sleep, which I described as self care because it is essential to maintaining my health and well being.
Neurotransmitter messaging systems are crucial to our understanding of how neurotransmitters affect responses of different systems. Phagocytosis is one system that is affected by neurotransmitter messaging. Phagocytosis is the process through which membrane bound vacuoles pinch off and transport food throughout the cell of organisms. One such organism that utilizes the mechanism of phagocytosis is Tetrahymena. Tetrahymena are single celled protozoans that are useful in labs to be used as model organisms. When Tetrhymena encounter food particles, they use their cilia to move the food into their grooves and then through the process of endocytosis, the membrane bound vacuoles pinch off in a similar mechanism to what is described above.
The creature has an off white and segmented body. Through out the creature's body there seem to be small brown dots located along the left side. It moves by scrunching its segments; however, movement is very limited and overall does not display much displacement. The creature's head is a darker brown shade and has even darker accents. The creature was presented with woodchips; however, the creature rarely interacted with the woodchips. When the woodchips were moved, the creature made little to no attempt to move towards the woodchips. Furthermore, when the creature was physically moved within the cup away from its original spot, the creature made no attempt to return to its previous spot and continue to curl up in place. The observed creature had many legs; however, the not all the legs seem to be used solely for walking, but also for a suction type feature. The creature measures 15 cm long when fully stretched, but the creature was rarely fully stretched and was usually curled up, seemingly in a defensive manner. The creature seemed to be mostly curled up towards the tail end.
The creature is off white, moves by scrunching. Its head is dark brown with darker brown accents. Uses woodchips. It seems to have many legs but overall doesnt go through much movement. Sometimes the creature tries to curl up into itself and seems to be moving its head in and out. The creature is 15 cm long fully extended but it is usually curled, especially on tail end. When moved larvae does not try to relocate back to previous spot but stays. Even though the larvae originally was in outer ring, when moved stays in center. even though the woodchips are there, there is limited interaction with the woodchips. no movement towards woodchips as they are moved away from larvae.