There are many types of ion pumps but the most common types are the sodium potassium pumps, the calcium pumps, and the potassium leak channels. The sodium potassium pump cleaves a huge amount of ATP as energy and the percentage of ATP consumed in the brain is 70%. These pumps are critical to set membrane potentials and functions by pumping 3 sodium ions out of the membrane and 2 potassium ions into the membrane. The body always has a very small concentration of calcium on the inside due to calcium ions’ property to be a signaling molecule. This pump actively pumps calcium ions out of the cytosol. The potassium leak channels provide a major role in generating membrane potentials as well. These randomly open but don’t allow other ions to pass beside potassium ions. These channels allow potassium to migrate down its concentration gradient to bring the membrane toward equilibrium. These three types of ion pumps provide are essential component to our body’s daily function.
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There are three types of media that are used for yeast. These three types are used for different purposes. The first kind is YED which contains all the nutrients needed for growth. This type has HA2 strains can survive. This media also causes the yeast to accumulate a red pigment due to the accumulation of P-ribosylamino imidazole that is exposed to oxygen. The second type is MV which has a minimal amount of pure chemicals needed for growth; this type lacks adenine so neither HA2 nor HB1 can grow. YEKAC is the third type and is nutritionally unbalanced. This type is used as a starvation media so that it triggers yeast to form their haploid forms as asci from their diploid state. Each type has a different function for lab use when looking at yeast.
Yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) can be either haploid or diploid and can reproduce sexually or asexually. There are two kinds of haploid yeast: MATa and MAT(alpha). When they encounter one another, they fuse and become a diploid cell. In ideal conditions and with proper nutrition, this diploid cell can be maintained. Under starvation conditions, the diploid sporulates and becomes an ascus that contains four haploid spores. The ascus is a dormant state in which the spores are protected by a hard shell. When conditions are right and nutrients are supplied, germination of the ascus occurs (1).
taken from: "Yeast Genetics Part 1- Observing a Simple Cross and Two Genes One Trait."
Being a student from UMass Amherst, traveling is a large part of my day. I walked throughout the day from the first moments that I wake up until the moment right before I fall asleep. I walk in the mornings primarily to go get food from dining halls (which are quite a distance from my apartment) or go to classes that are also far away. Starting from my apartment, I walked down a flight of stairs and toward the dining hall. After eating there I walked to the campus center to purchase a lab notebook and some pens. After that, I walked to the library and used the elevator to go up five floors to the study area. Then I went to my next class at the ILC which meant more walking; after that class, I walked to the ISB to go to my genetics lab. In the genetics lab, I’d constantly be on my feet walking around. Then I went to eat with my friend at Worcester, so I had to walk there and then walk home. After doing homework, I walked to the gym and met up with my friend. I walked home and spent time with a group of my friends. We then decided to go to downtown Amherst so we walked to his car and he drove us. After that we decided to walk home.
The organism I considered to use for my methods project has to be a plant species. There are many justifications for this in terms of easy replication. I could describe the area that I got it from and so the other person would have a sense of where to go to find it. Plants are not motile, so the same plant species will be there for the next person to observe. Also since plants cannot move, it should make it easier for me to produce good pictures of it. There is a large variation of plant species on campus and it should not be difficult to find a unique species with key characteristics different from others. The plant is most likely ground level so there won’t be anything to climb. I ended up choosing a bush called the blue princess holly (Ilex x meserveae ‘Blue Princess’) because it is abundant in one part of our campus and is quite easy to observe and photograph.
Figure 1. Panda Eating in the Shade. Creative commons (BY) licensed.
The panda is in its natural habitat where it is surrounded by grass and eating bamboo. Rather than basking in the sun, it is taking shelter behind a large rock.
image: https://farm6.staticflickr.com/5017/5402340884_e472d9f447_z_d.jpg by Kevin Dooley.
Being a student from UMass Amherst, traveling is a large part of my day. In only one day, I walked throughout the day from the first moments that I wake up until the moment before I fall asleep. I walk in the mornings primarily to go get food from dining halls that are quite a distance from my apartment or go to classes that are also really far away. Starting from my apartment, I would have to walk down a flight of stairs because I live on the third floor and then walk outside of my micro-neighborhood and toward the dining hall. After eating there I walked to the campus center to purchase a lab notebook and some pens. After that, I walked to the library and then used the elevator to go up 5 floors to the study area where I took notes. Then I made a gap of about 10 minutes to get to my next class which was at the ILC which meant more walking, after that class I walked to the ISB to go to my genetics lab. In the genetics lab, I’d constantly be on my feet walking around. Then I went to eat with my friend at Worcester so I had to walk there and then walk home. After doing homework, I walked to the gym and met up with my friend. I walked home and then hung out with a group of my friends for a while. We then decided to go to downtown Amherst so we walked to his car and he drove us. We then walked around the town and into some bars. After that we finally decided to walk home.
Without any food or objects in the cup, the motivation of the maggot’s movement remains unknown. When the worm is not agitated, it remains static in place but tries to move with its front pair of legs. Its back legs remain still keeping it from moving. The technique in movement that it uses appears to be that it coils or compresses the back half of its body which it then propels itself forward. When agitated with a piece of paper, the worm responds by moving frequently and vigorously. A frontal threat showed that the worm could move backward at a reasonable speed.
The grub doesnt seem to be doing too mcuh besides for constantly trying to climb the steep wall of the cup. Even just moving seems to be too difficult for it to accomplish. It looks smooth from a distance, but with a closer look, one can see that it has tiny haris on its body. It continues to struggle moving, but is unable to propel its large body with such stubby legs. The lack of friction from the surface of the cup keeps the grub immobile.
With little agitation, the worm remains still and tries to move but cannot. It seems to be moving with an aim that I am not sure of. Rather than moving all of its legs, it only moves its front legs. It has a technique where it coils/compresses itself up to bring its back legs forward for moving. When agitated, it moves more frequently and vigorously. When there is a threat from the front, it is able to move backward at a reasonable speed.
Its movement is wavelike and it starts from the posterior and moves up to its anterior legs. Its body is tannish yellow and it has a darker brown head. It has a segmented body with a pair of legs under each segment. When it has its posterior half curled up, it only uses its front pair of legs to move. When rolled onto its backside, it has problems trying to get up. Measurements show that it has a length of 19 to 20 millimeters and a width of 4 millimeters.