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HMG CoA Reductase - Perfect Paragraph

Submitted by jmazzola on Sun, 11/12/2017 - 22:09

HMG CoA reductase is a rate controlling enzyme in the pathway that synthesizes cholesterol within the cell. Usually this enzyme is suppressed when the process of LDL (low-denity lipoprotein) internalization is taking place, this is because LDL is a cholesterol transport molecule, and it is presumed that if the cell is internalizing cholesterol from outside, it does not need to synthesize it's own through the pathway with HMG CoA reductase. So it's been proposed that there is definetly some kind of coordination between these two pathways and even though the full expanse of it is not yet known, we've still be able to utilize it. Competative inhibition of this reductase enzyme leads to expression of LDL receptors, and thus lower concentration of cholesterol outside the cell because it is being properly internalized and metabolized. Furthermore, in regards to patients with high cholesterol, they can be given "cholesterol-lowering" drugs like statins to help, which target the HMG reductase enzyme in this way. 

HMG Reductase

Submitted by jmazzola on Sun, 11/12/2017 - 21:23

HMG CoA reductase is a rate controlling enzyme in a pathway that synthesizes cholesterol within the cell.
This enzyme is normally suppressed by internalization of cholesterol via LDL and LDL receptor. Competitive inhibitors of this enzyme cause expression of LDL receptors, and increased LDL concentration inside the cell following. This is the reason this enzyme is a target for cholesterol lowering drugs like statins.

Quality of Scientific Posters

Submitted by jmazzola on Tue, 11/07/2017 - 22:12

Factors that contribute to quality in scientific posters

To Do:

-Organization of poster sections

-Neatness of layout and visuals

-Simple, catchy title, or just an understandable title

-Use of colors if possible to increase overall "attractiveness" 

-Simplification of the study - summarizing the primary results and conclusions 

-A good background section to help the reader understand the topic a little better

To Avoid:

-Boring layout


-Boring, wordy title

-Too much writing/"wordiness"/multiple blocks of text

-Overload of information

-Jumping right into the "study language" without any quick definitions to help the reader understand what is being said.

Persuasive Statement

Submitted by jmazzola on Fri, 11/03/2017 - 14:57

   In response to recent events, I make this statement to cast my input on the dog breed I believe should be saved from this virus. My choice would be the Border Collie dog breed; first and foremost because they are currently known as the smartest breed. Collies have been tested for their intelligence on numerous occasions and are highly capable of learning words and commands, following directions and solving complex problems. Thus, they are already very useful to society just in that one aspect. In addition to their intelligence though, they are also a very “people friendly” breed. So not only are they smart, but they are still very compatible and loyal with people. They are just as loving and affectionate as most dogs are known to be so there is no loss of what we think of as just being a dog. Finally, they also classify as “working dogs” meaning they have very high energy and agility. We use dogs in the police and military forces because they’ve proven to be useful to us here as well, so the Border Collie breed having a characteristic that enables them for this as well makes them overall the best candidate breed for saving.

Further Studies

Submitted by jmazzola on Fri, 11/03/2017 - 14:40

   Another aspect this study showed was that the expression domains of PRS and WOX1 do not completely overlap as was previously thought. So it can be presumed that there must be additional, more detailed factors in play for each individual gene’s expression. A further study could then be to explore more of each gene's domain, or maybe just more focus on PRS, since this study leaned more towards defining WOX1. Additionally, these genes could have differing purposes or levels of strength and effectiveness depending of the species of plant – according to the study, differing phenotypes for the genes show up depending on the species. More studies could be done on other model organisms to test just how differently these genes behave, or if maybe they do behave similarly in most plants but other gene systems especially unique to a particular species could overrule them. 

Experimental Design

Submitted by jmazzola on Fri, 11/03/2017 - 14:35

Experimental design

Analysis of ARF expression patterns during early leaf development with fluorescent tagging to clarify spatial auxin signaling.
Test whether abnormal WOX expression causes leaf patterning development defects by crossing pMP::MPΔ transgenic plants with wox1-2 or prs mutants.
Test direct induction of WOX1 and PRS expression by MP (an ARF) - constructed a Dex-inducible pMP::MPΔ-GR line.
Test regulation of WOX1 and PRS expression by ta-siRNA-targeted ARF genes, through observing WOX gene expression in arf2-6, and arf3-1 arf4-2 mutants, and in ARF2 overexpression transgenic plants (ARF2ox).
Test direct suppression of WOX1 and PRS expression by three ta-siRNA-targeted ARFs.

Paper presentation

Submitted by jmazzola on Fri, 11/03/2017 - 14:33

Leaf Flattening:

•Process of leaf development in which the developing leaf flattens/grows outwards towards the sides (margins).
•Significant plant adaptation increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis.
•Studying the underlying mechanisms of this process provide a good model for general organ development.
•While a good number of the mechanisms behind this process have been defined, some still remain unclear.

Adaxial-abaxial patterning establishment promotes leaf blade outgrowth (leaf flattening) in Arabidopsis:

•Previous studies have found promotor genes for the abaxial and adaxial regions to be within a transcriptional regulatory network.
•The expression of  WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) genes, WOX1 and PRS, is proposed to be essential in promoting leaf blade outgrowth from the marginal domain.
•Homologs of these genes in other plant species have similar expression patterns and also promote leaf blade outgrowth.

Cyclohexane discussion

Submitted by jmazzola on Sat, 10/28/2017 - 17:05

     In this lab, cyclohexanol was dehydrated through the process of fractional distillation while in the presence of a catalyst, 85% phosphoric acid, then, the resulting mixture went through a series of washing and drying steps in order to obtain the final desired product, cyclohexene, at a 55.09% yield. To determine the purity of the product, gas chromatography analysis was performed, and only one peak was seen, indicating the product to be of desired purity. If there had been multiple peaks on the graph, it would have indicated that more than once substance was present. A second analysis was performed using the technique of infrared spectroscopy, which measures resonant/vibrational frequencies of compounds, the molecules “vibrate” from how they absorb the infrared radiation. This analysis confirmed the presence of an alkene from what frequency range the transmittance peaked around, about 2358.51 — 3000 cm-1. The results of other chemical tests performed, the Bromine and KMnO4, additionally confirmed the presence of the desired alkene product. The product was attained at what was calculated to be a fair 55.09% yield. This yield could have been increased through improvements to the procedure, which could include but wasn’t limited to; the distillation going on for a longer amount of time, the longer the distillation, the more product collected, and only just enough product was collected to perform the analyses and tests. Also the rate of distillation could have been slowed, it was done a bit more rapidly, and as such with not as much accuracy.

NPC disease

Submitted by jmazzola on Fri, 10/27/2017 - 20:01

One of a group of lysosomal storage diseases that affect metabolism and is caused by genetic mutation is Neimann-Pick Type C disease. In Type C, patients are not able to metabolize cholesterol and other lipids properly within the cell. The result being excessive accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and spleen. This disease is almost always fatal, with the vast majority of individuals dying before they turn 20, it is possible for them to live longer in rare situations, but not past 40 years old. It is believed that the mutation causing this disease is in the transmembrane protein NPC1.

Planarian methods summary perfect paragraph

Submitted by jmazzola on Fri, 10/20/2017 - 00:07

   In this paper (Bansal 2017), a several methods were used to carry out experiments in their study. Planarian culture was the first method to be enacted, which detailed how they were maintained prior to the start of the experiments when they were killed. After killing, they performed whole-mount in situ hybridization and double fluoresence in situ hybridization. Some specimens were then immunostained "whole-mount", as opposed to smaller sections of them. Then, they also did take smaller sectioned samples by "embedding and cryosectioning", before proceeding to immunostain those as well. Also following the in situ hybridization, BrdU labeling and immunofluoresence staining was done. In regards to imaging these samples, both with confocal microscopy and transmission electrion microscopy were utilized. Then, for further sample analysis, they performed polysome profilling, followed by qRT-PCR, mRNA purification and transcriptome sequencing, all of which confirmed the hypothesized significance of their protein of interest.


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