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Genetics Terminology

Submitted by bmoreau on Wed, 12/13/2017 - 08:12

Genetics Update Terminology

  1. Genome - The total genetic content contained in a haploid set of chromosomes in eukaryotes, in a single chromosome in bacteria, or in the DNA or RNA of viruses.

  2. Promoter - a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.

  3. Transcription Factor - In molecular biology and genetics, a transcription factor (sometimes called a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the movement(or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to mRNA.

  4. 5’ and 3’ UTR’s - 5’ can contain elements for controlling gene expression by way of regulatory elements. 3’ the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon.

  5. Exon - any nucleotide sequence encoded by a gene that remains present within the final mature RNA product of that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing

  6. Introns - any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing while the final mature RNA product of a gene is being generated.[

  7. Splicesome - a complex of snRNA and protein subunits that removes introns from a transcribed pre-mRNA (hnRNA) segment. This process is generally referred to as splicing.

  8. shRNA - A small hairpin RNA or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is a sequence of RNA that makes a tight hairpin turn that can be used to silence target gene expression via RNA interference (RNAi)

  9. siRNA - Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length. siRNA plays many roles, but its most notable is in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, where it interferes with the expression of specific genes with complementary nucleotide sequence.

  10. sncRNA - a functional RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. the term “small” typically refers to short bacterial ncRNAs

  11. lncRNA - similar to sncRNA, as it doesnt contain coding for proteins, only these are large and in eukaryotes

  12. RISC - The RNA-induced silencing complex, or RISC, is a multiprotein complex that incorporates one strand of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA). RISC uses the siRNA or miRNA as a template for recognizing complementary mRNA.

  13. Gene silencing -  a general term describing epigenetic processes of gene regulation. The term gene silencing is generally used to describe the "switching off" of a gene by a mechanism other than genetic modification.

Genetic “Dimmer” mechanism - The gene Foxp2 acts like a "genetic dimmer switch" that regulates wiring in the developing brain. It does this by controlling the products of other genes, resulting in changes in the length and number of connections between brain cells

Biomass notes

Submitted by bmoreau on Wed, 12/13/2017 - 08:09

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using wood for biomass fuel?


    A. What is Biomass fuel?

                1. fuel that came from organic materials, a renewable source of energy used to create                                                                e                 electricity or other forms of power

                2. a renewable source of fuel because waste residue will always exist

    B. Why is wood a good biomass fuel source?

                1. wood is a renewable source, so there is a dependable, sustainable amount

                2. the amount of carbon produced while burning wood is 90% less than fossil fuel

                3. wood has very tiny amounts of metal and sulfur

                4. not a threat to acid rain and particulate emissions can be handled

                5. economically wood costs significantly less than competing fossil fuels


Perfect paragraph

Submitted by bmoreau on Tue, 12/05/2017 - 11:32

In life there is also a line or boundary between what is right and what is wrong. As stated above, Walter does wrong by our society by selling and cooking drugs, and also lying to everyone about it. There are also double standards in our society. For example it is less serious when a man cheats on his wife, but it is absolutely horrible for a woman to cheat on her husband in any circumstances, and she will be looked down upon. Walter’s wife Skylar does not pertain to the cultural truth-value of staying loyal to her husband. She breaks the boundary between what we know as right and wrong and she sleeps with her boss while still married to Walter. Not only does Walter manipulate the boundaries and cultural truth-values, but his wife does as well, and in this way they are both similar to the trickster Hermes, god of all boundaries. 


Submitted by bmoreau on Tue, 12/05/2017 - 11:32

Hermes the god of all boundaries is a very interesting god, and is not like others in the way that he is a trickster and represents darkness and lying, unlike the other gods of Olympus. Walter White, one of the protagonists from Breaking Bad, reminds me of Hermes because in a way he too is a trickster. Walter White suddenly snaps when he finds out that he has lung cancer and could die at any time. He, who is a high school chemistry teacher, decides to cook meth with another drug abuser and start selling it to make money for his family. The whole time that Walter is involved in this process, he is lying to everyone that cares about him, and is basically living a double life. In this way he is similar to Hermes because Hermes is the god of boundaries and he can easily utilize the boundary of what is a lie and what is true and he can get away with it, just as Walter does. Walter is testing this boundary of what is true and what is false and no one has no idea he is cooking meth. This relates as a cultural truth value because in our society it is frowned upon to use drugs such as meth, let alone cook it and sell it, while lying about it and ultimately putting his family in grave danger.


Submitted by bmoreau on Tue, 12/05/2017 - 11:28

         If the CO2 dissolves into the ocean this can lower the pH of the ocean, which has long-term affects on the organisms that live there. For example certain marine shelled organisms use calcium carbonate to build their shells and if the pH drops too much then the shells will no longer be stable. Then they will dissolve quickly killing the organisms which can have a bigger overall effect on the entire ocean ecosystem as those organisms can be food for many creatures of the ocean.


Submitted by bmoreau on Sun, 11/26/2017 - 17:51

Albert Abraham Michelson was born on December 19, 1852 in Prussia, but moved to the United States when he was only two years old. He was a beloved husband and father to his wife Edna Stanton and his three daughters and one son. He will be missed dearly. Albert also had a love for physics and possessed a special skill in optics. He performed early measurements of the velocity of light, with amazing accuracy, and in 1881 he finally perfected his invention the interfermometer. The invention would show the effect of Earth’s motion on the observed velocity. With Professor Morley they could see that light travels at a constant speed in all inertial references. The could also measure distances with amazing accuracy using the length of light waves. For this instrument and the discoveries that came along with it, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1907. Michelson was a great man, who was always so kind and thoughtful of others, he will be missed by so many people. He was a rare treasure of a human being. He died on May 9, 1931.


Lung Cancer A&P

Submitted by bmoreau on Sun, 11/26/2017 - 17:50

Lung cancer is a very deadly and dangerous disease. It happens when cells of the lung tissues grow uncontrollably and form tumors. A tumor is a mass of lumps of tissue and abnormal cells. Lung cancer in the United States for both men and women is the leading cause of death for the different kinds of cancers. It is most likely found in people that are above fifty and very rare among young children and young adults. There are two different kinds of cancer, primary and secondary. Primary cancer starts in the lungs. Secondary cancer starts somewhere else and makes its way to the lungs by metastasis. The most common and the majority of people diagnosed  with cancer are people that smoke tobacco. About 90 percent of all lung cancer cases are thought to be caused from smoking. It can also be caused from exposure to asbestos, radon gas and if a person already has certain lung disorders.


Submitted by bmoreau on Sun, 11/26/2017 - 17:47

Happiness is a very complex idea, which there is no right or wrong opinion to. Is it a feeling, or an idea, and are there certain things that can make everyone happy? Many people have tried to come up with ideas to explain or try to figure out new ways to achieve happiness. Epicureanism is a philosophy that was created to try to achieve happiness. This philosophy believes that to find happiness people need to be happy with what they have and to have friendship, and live simply. Another philosophy that tries to explain happiness and ways to achieve it is Stoicism. Stoicism preaches that every day problems can be solved by thinking rationally. It also believes that people need to learn the difference between things that we can and cannot control, and that happiness does not depend on material things but on our own thoughts. Happiness cannot be bought, because its not some material you can obtain, it is a state of mind that can be achieved only by the thoughts in your mind.


perfect para

Submitted by bmoreau on Thu, 11/16/2017 - 08:29

Our method is strong because we took the time to go inside the library and measure each floor from the tile to the ceiling. We did not rely on our eyesight and did not just simply count bricks on the outside of the building. It is impossible to know the distance of the blocks above all the windows at the very top of the building just by looking at it. Other groups relied on this method and I think it makes it less accurate than ours.



Submitted by bmoreau on Thu, 11/16/2017 - 08:28

What can you conclude about the relationship of musical notes to one another?


Musical notes are multiples of each other. Each note gets you a different harmonic, and it's because they are two times, three times, four times etc larger in frequency than the previous note. Just like with the standing waves we created, the piano notes all have a relation to previous notes in the form of a ratio between the different harmonics.


Some of the ratios in Table 3 are given special names in music theory. For example, the ratio C1 : C2 is called an octave and C3 : E3 is called a major 3rd. When two or more sound waves interfere with one another and create a pleasing sound, this is referred to as consonance. As discovered by Pythagoras, consonance occurs when the ratios of the two frequencies are small whole numbers, as you discovered completing Table 3.




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