PROC. ENT. SOC. PHIL. VOL. II, p. 511. (1864.)

(PLATE III, FIG. 1 male)

Expands 1-7/8 inches.

Head and thorax light grey; abdomen above dark brown; beneath white.

Primaries, from exterior margin to the undulate band, greyish with darker shades; from thence to transverse posterior line white; the space interior of this to the base, with the exception of the white open sub- reniform, is light grey; reniform dark brown; joining the sub-reniform on inside is a very distinct black spot; another is on edge of costa at termination of the transverse anterior line; whole inner edge of wings shaded with black to about one-fourth their width.

Secondaries black, outer angle tipped with white.

Under surface, primaries black, outer angle white, a broad white sub- marginal band. Secondaries black with white edge at outer angle as on upper side. Habitat. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island.

For the original of my figure I am indebted to Mrs. Bridgham, who collected several examples near Providence, Rhode Island. The smallest and rarest of all our known black winged species.



(PLATE III, FIG. 2 male)

Expands 3-1/2 inches.

Head and thorax grey; collar banded with chestnut; abdomen greyish brown; beneath white.

Upper surface, primaries ashen with brown shadings and powdered with black atoms; a conspicuous black arc sweeps from the sub-apical dash, which forms a part of it, downwards to the reniform, thence obliquely upwards to the costa; transverse posterior line black, accompanied outwardly by a brown band which is in turn succeeded by the grey undulate sub-marginal band; reniform distinct and brown; fringes grey.

Secondaries black; white fringes middle of which are penciled with black; basal hairs, heavy and greyish.

Under surface white, on primaries the transverse bands are confluent along the interior margin. Secondaries have marginal band very broad, mesial moderate and strongly angulate, white space between the two bands, very narrow.

A southern species although taken in a few rare instances in Pennsylvania. Examples are in the Mus. of the Am. Ent. Soc. and my own. The most robust and with the exception of the Californian C. Marmorata, the largest American Catocala. With this species has frequently been confounded C. Desperata Guen. a smaller and slighter built insect, common throughout the Middle and Southern States and which is figured in Abbot & Smith, under the name of Phalaeno Vidua.


SPEC. GEN. VOL,. vii p. 93.

(PLATE III, FIG. 3 male)

Expands 3 inches.

Upper surface, primaries very dark and dusted with minute pale grey scales, transverse lines black, sub-terminal distinct and sometimes shaded interiorly with grey; the grey shadings of the transverse lines are broader and brighter between the sub-median vein and interior margin; whole surface of wings frosted and powdered in such a way as to make the markings very indistinct.

Secondaries black, fringes white, divided by black at terminations of nervules. Under surface much like C. Viduata.

Habitat. Pennsylvania.

I have not seen examples from any other state; it appears to be exceedingly local; two years since a dozen or so were taken in a small piece of woods, four miles from Reading, but in none of the neighboring localities have I ever met with it. It is subject to much variation; of six examples now before me, none agree in the depth or quantity of the dark color of pri- maries; the one figured on Plate III has the black, sub-terminal line, margined with grey of unusual brightness, whilst in another there is no accompanying grey at all; yet another has the third of the wing along the interior margin deep black, like in C. Tristis, and the most notable var. is one in which the whole space between the transverse anterior and sub- terminal lines is black, whilst the space from sub-marginal line to exterior margin is remarkably light and even colored, exactly after the manner of C. Scintillans; these were all taken the same day in one place.

I must confess I can see in this species none of the resemblance to C. Epione alluded to by Mr. Grote? more than that they both have black inferiors; under side of Lachrymosa is white, with usual black bands; that of Epione is black, with, on primaries, a narrow white sub-terminal band, midway between which and the base is a small white patch commencing on costa and running diagonally to middle of wing; secondaries have the merest trace of a very narrow, almost obsolete white band running from costa a short way in.

Trans. Am, Ent. Soc., Vol. IV, pp. 2 & 19.


(PLATE III, FIG. 4 male)

Expands 2-1/4 to 2-1/2 inches.

Thorax above, dark grey; abdomen black; beneath dirty white.

Upper surface, primaries dark smoky grey, pretty evenly colored; transverse anterior and posterior lines black, varying somewhat in width and distinctness in different examples; a sub-terminal grey band between two brownish ones; in some examples an almost obsolete reniform, but in the majority this appears to be replaced by a small round deep brown or black discal spot; sub-reniform open.

Secondaries black; fringes white, and in some cases black and white. Under surface white, with black hands. Habitat. New York.

I received a number of this species from Mr. Augus who took them in the vicinity of the village of West Farms, N.Y.; he says they are difficult to discover, as they secrete themselves in the crevices beneath the bark of trees, and the rustling of leaves, &c., will not start them from their hiding places; nothing short of hard raps against the tree trunks will do it. It does not appear to be very rare; I have seen examples in various collections for a number of years past under the name of' Lachrymosa, Vidua, and Insolabilis, so to get it out of its obscurity, and as its appearance is more obscure than any of its allies, I have christened it accordingly.

May 1st, 1873.



(PLATE III, FIG. 5 male, 6 female)

Male. Expands about 3 inches.

Collar white; thorax above white, mottled with black; abdominal segments blackish, edged exteriorly with white; beneath whole body is white; anal tuft white.

Upper surface, primaries white, with a distinct row of black terminal spots; basal patch black, transverse bands and lines almost lost in centre of wing, but become more distinct as they near the costal and interior margins; reniform spot tolerably distinct, sub-reniform almost obsolete.

Secondaries black, with a regular narrow white median band; the discal spot of under surface is visible, the basal part of the wing not being as dark as the balance; fringes white.

Under surface, primaries white, with broad dark brown marginal and median and paler basal bands; secondaries dark brown, basal patch large, white, contains a black discal spot which connects exteriorly with the black of the remaining portion of the wing, the white median band of the upper side repeated.

Female. Expands 3-1/4 inches.

Colors and markings as in male, but bands of' primaries much intensified, heavier and better defined, and nearly whole surface more or less powdered with dark grey atoms.

Under surface less black on all wings than the male, discal spot of inferiors smaller, lunate, and disconnected from the median black l/art.

This is one of the rarest, as it certainly is the most beautiful of the N. American Catocalidae; it is found occasionally in various parts of New York, seldom in Pennsylvania, but occurs in some plenty near Providence, Rhode Island.

I have little doubt, that when Guenee in his Species General (Vol. VII, p. 83,) credited N. America with C. Fraxini it was from examples of C. Relicta that he drew his conclusion, although there are and have been rumors of a blue banded Catocala like the former occurring on the Pacific Coast, and time may resolve the rumors to a certainty, for we all know what a wonderful resemblance bears the Lepidoptera of our Western Slope to those of Europe, and it would almost seem that. eventually every European Species is to find its analogue with us.


PROC. ENT. SOC. PHIL. II, p. 508. (1864.)

(PLATE III, FIG. 7. female )

Female. Expands 2-3/4 inches.

Head and thorax above blackish grey, abdomen dark brown; beneath dirty white. Upper surface, primaries blackish grey; a sub-terminal white zig-zag band joined interiorly by a much broken space of mixed yellow and white; reniform obscure, sub-reniform white, a white spot also joins the reniform on the inner side.

Secondaries deep scarlet; a broad marginal band with two indentations on the inner edge towards the anal angle; median band broad and a little elbowed at centre; some black mixed with the red hairs of the basal portion.

Fringes on all wings have the outer larger part white and the inner part adjoining the wings black or dark grey.

Under surface, primaries white with the usual three black bands; secondaries have inner three-fourths scarlet, remaining fourth white; marginal and mesial bands as above; a discal lune which connects with inner edge of median band.

Habitat. New York, Rhode Island.

Mus. Am. Ent. Soc., Mrs. Bridgham, Strecker. The type is in the museum of the Am. Ent. Soc.

Briseis, which is the rarest of its genus found in the Atlantic States, belongs to the same group as Unijuga, Walk., Irene, Behr, Californica, Edw., and the species described below, but the grey of the upper and red of the lower wings is much darker than in any of its congenors. With much regret that I can say so little of this beautiful moth, I will proceed to


(PLATE III, FIG. 8 male)

MALE. Expands 2-5/8 inches.

Body above grey, beneath white.

Upper surface, primaries blueish grey, powdered with brown atoms, marginal spots, transverse lines and bands well defined, reniform distinct, and surrounded by an outer circle which is produced in two points on exterior; sub-reniform white; above this and interior to the reniform is a white space; fringe light grey.

Secondaries scarlet, median band moderately wide, angulated at centre outwardly, and terminates somewhat abruptly about two lines from abdominal margin; marginal band with a deep indentation between the first and second median nervules, apical spot and emarginations rosy; fringe on exterior margin white, on interior margin grey.

Under surface, primaries white; secondaries, interior two-thirds rosy, towards costa this color becomes lost in white; almost imperceptible indications of a discal lune.

The single type from which the accompanying figure was drawn I received from Mr. W. H. Edwards, who stated that it had been taken in Arizona by Lt. Wheeler's Expedition in 1871. It is a pretty, medium sized species, and, like most of those from the western side of the Rocky Mountains, resembles wonderfully some species of Europe.

May 2d, 1873.


TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC., VOL.. IV., p. 6. (1872.)

(PLATE III, FIG. 9, male)

MALE. Expands 2-3/8 inches.

Upper surface, primaries pale grey, variegated with brown; reniform small and pale, space between this and sub-basal transverse line white, with a pink tinge caused by the red of under side being reflected through; sub- reniform large and same color, transverse median line acutely dentate, a white sub-marginal spot formed of the space caused by the central inflection of this line.

Secondaries bright scarlet, marginal band regular, widest towards outer angle, median band not reaching interior margin, apical spot narrow and red; basal hair greyish, fringe white and grey.

Under surface, superiors red, inferiors, inner two-thirds same color, outer third white; a black discal lunule from which extends along centre of discal cell almost to base of wing, a black streak.

Habitat. Pennsylvania.

This species is of rare occurrence; the only one I ever saw on the wing was the male from which I made my illustration on Plate III and which I captured a number of years since in some oak woods then near Reading, but the grounds are now in that city, and the noble old trees are replaced by varied and execrable examples of domestic architecture. Mr. Grote's types are in the Mus. of the Am. Ent. Society; several examples also in fine collection Mr. Wilt, of Phila.


SPEC. GEN., VOL. VII, p. 96.

(PLATE III, FIG. 10. female )

Expands 3-1/4 inches.

Thorax above light grey, with brown markings; abdomen brown, beneath yellowish white.

Upper surface primaries, pale grey of various shades and mottled with brown, transverse lines distinct and dark brown, reniform moderate size, sub-reniform white; exterior to these in the median space, a dark patch; two diagonal white spaces, one interior to the reniform and above the sub- reniform, the other interior to the outer half of the transverse posterior line; fringes brown.

Secondaries black with a narrow yellow median band of equal width throughout; basal part covered with long brown hair beneath which it is yellow; apical spot and emarginations yellow; fringes white cut with black at the terminations of the nervules. Beneath all wings are yellow; secondaries with black marginal and median bands.

Habitat. New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, &c.

By no means a common species although at times occurring in some plenty in particular localities.


PROC. ENT. SOC. PHIL., VOL. II, p. 510:

(PLATE III, FIG. 11. female )

Expands 2-1/4 inches.

Head and collar chestnut brown; thorax smoky grey; abdomen brown.

Upper surface, primaries same grey as thorax with transverse brownish shades, transverse lines narrow but distinct.

Secondaries deep yellow; marginal band indented in middle; median narrow, irregular and prominently elbowed at centre; basal hairs brown.

Under surface yellow, all the bands pretty heavy; bases of wings obscured with brown which color more or less shades the whole under surface.

Habitat. New York, Pennsylvania.

Rare. Mr. Edwards' type is in collection of Mr. Wilt, Philadelphia. I took a single female examples about a mile from Reading, I also received specimens from my good friend Mr. Angus of West-Farms, N. Y., in which locality he captured them.

I trust this plate of Catocalidae may prove acceptable; the confusion existing in regard to the nomenclature of the various species is truly wonderful; I do not think I would be going too far in asserting that there are not over three collections in America in which they are all correctly determined; this is particularly the case with our typical black species.

As I either possess or have access to examples of all our known species, I will in future numbers of this work illustrate the whole of them, probably every third plate I issue will be of this genus until they or I am exhausted.


In List of Lepidoptera of N. America by Grote and Robinson, Part 1, (1868,) on page VIII, Arctia Speciosissima, Mosch., is incorrect, it should be Arctia Speciosa, Mosch. On same page, right below, A. Quenselii, Geyer, and A. Gelida, Mosch., are given as distinct, whereas they are one and the same, Geyer's name having priority...