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What happens to the brain in schizophrenia? Well, the hippocampus and amygdala become smaller due to atrophy. What induces this atrophy is not yet known and is the backbone goal for many research labs in the country. When atrophy occurs it allows the ventricles inside the brain to become larger and thus people with Schizophrenia will have much larger ventricles than normal people. Because the hippocampus gets smaller, it reduces the overall activity of the frontal lobes, temporal lobes, and limbic regions. This causes a loss of brain functioning in all three areas making the person slow down mentally and unfortunately causing a near constant state of confusion.

Competition

Competition occurs between two species sharing the same resources in a habitat or niche. The ecological niche is where a species or population finds its resources for survival. The competitive exclusion principle states that two species that share the same niche cannot coexist if other ecological factors are constant. One species will dominate over the other leading the species either to extinction, or toward a different ecological niche. However, both species competing will experience a reduction in fitness illustrating a -/- interaction as fewer resources are available for both individually. Experiments prove that when a competitor is removed from its niche, the remaining species with more resource will better survive and reproduce showing logistic growth.

Source:
Freeman, Scott. "Community Ecology." Biological Science with MasteringBiology® (4th Edition). 4 ed. San Fransisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2010. 1215-1218. Print.

Perfect Paragraph U.S. Students Suffering from Internet Addiction

How many hours a week do you spend on Facebook, AIM, or e-mail? Research conducted by University of Maryland showed that students suffer from symptoms similar to drug and alcohol. The study required 200 students to give up all media for one full day. The result showed students suffering from withdrawal and anxiety. The most complaints from the test subjects came from the need for text messaging, instant messaging, e-mailing, or Facebooking. One student wrote, “texting and IM-ing friends gave me a constant feeling of comfort”.

Helpful colds

The common cold, or influenza virus, has been an annual source of misery for most of our lives. Influenza infection is not generally considered fatal, but has been known to damages lungs and stimulate the release of a group of steroid hormones called glucocorticoids. Though people sometimes die from secondary infections new research indicates that the increase in glucocorticoids may prevent secondary infections from killing the infected person.

Perfect Paragraph Human Growth Hormones

The growth hormone is a protein of approximately 200 amino acids that is located in the anterior pituitary gland. GH, also known as somatotripin, is secreted by somatotroph cells. Furthermore, stress, exercise, nutrition, and sleep are contributing factors. Its main function is to stimulate growth, metabolism, and cell reproduction. Secretion of the protein is controlled by the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), Somatostatin (SS), and Ghrelin, which is released from the stomach. Anabolic, building up, is the word closely associated with describing the function of the protein.

Rats as an Invasive Species

Rats were originally introduced to Hawaii unintentionally by humans. Without any natural predators, their population quickly grew unchecked. Their urine contaminated Hawaii's small streams. Now, most of the streams in Hawaii contain bacteria that will cause Leptospirosis if stream water makes contact with a small cut or wound. Thus, people thought that rats were a huge pest problem. Their proposed solution was to bring in the mongoose to hunt the rat. What researchers failed to realize was that the mongoose are active during the day, whereas rats are nocturnal. They are behaviorally isolated from one another. So instead of controlling the rat population, the mongoose began preying on the native species of bird eggs, and decimated the local honeysucker populations. So now, not only did Hawaii have a rat problem, they also had a mongoose problem.

Genetic Obesisty

It has been known that genetic differences between people can come from lost or duplicated sections of chromosomes called, copy number variants (CNV's). CNV's allow people to carry a different number of copies of particular genes. Sadaf Farooqi of the University of Cambridge in the U.K. and colleagues analyzed the genomes of 300 extremely obese children for missing or duplicated chromosome segments. They found that a number of CNV's were more common in the obese children than the group of normal-weight people. The most prevalent was a deletion of a gene in chromosome 16, where the same deletion also turned up in a separate group of more than 1000 heavyset children.

Observing Mallard Behavior

When observing animal behavior, I believe it is easier to use a point sample technique than a modified frequency technique. A point sample observation is used to record the specific behavior of an animal at the beginning of every time interval. A modified frequency observation records every behavior of the animal within each time interval. In a recent study, I observed mallard ducks at the campus pond using both of these techniques. The point sample technique was easier to use because only the first action of each time interval needed to be recorded. This allowed me to look down and mark the action on the paper without missing any other actions that needed to be marked. The modified frequency technique was more difficult because every characteristic behavior that I observed needed to be recorded throughout every time interval. This made it extremely difficult to keep track of time and make sure the correct actions were placed in the correct time intervals. It was challenging to mark the actions on the paper as well as keep track of the mallards being observed. Overall, a modified frequency technique is harder to use but much more accurate if done correctly.

Comparing C. eurytheme and C.philodice Growth Rate in Different Temperatures- Introduction Perfect Paragraph

Insects use a variety of strategies to increase the fitness and survival of the species. Bet hedging, when an organism produces many progeny to increase their individual chances of survival, and Diapause, a quiescent period where development is suspended during adverse conditions (Roff, 1993), are two examples of these strategies. Colias philodice and Colias eurytheme are two sympatric, closely related species that utilize these strategies to survive. These species also occupy the same habitat and utilize the same food source and host plants. When two species depend on the same resources, one species will drive the other to extinction, yet these Pierid butterflies coexist. This study investigated the methods these species employ to coexist.

C. philodice and C. eurytheme can be distinguished by their wing color: C. philodice is yellow with blank band at the tips of the wings and C. eurytheme is light orange with black bands at the tip of the wings (Wang & Porter, 2004; Porter& Levin, 2007). It was hypothesized that these two species can interbreed randomly, allowing them to coexist. However, a study done by Taylor (1972) demonstrated that these species are sexually isolated under most natural conditions, which refutes this hypothesis. Another group studied host plant evolution in hybrid species and showed a clear difference in maturation strategies between C. eurytheme and C. philodice. Even though they grow at the same daily rate (DGR) C. philodice pupate a day earlier (with a lower body weight) than C.eurytheme. This life-history difference may provide a seasonally fluctuating fitness trade-off that could help explain the coexistence of these butterflies. (Porter & Levin, 2007). We propose that C. philodice completes an extra generation before entering diapause placing it one generation ahead of C. eurytheme, and thus giving the species an advantage. Since the extra generation will develop in cooler temperatures, we hypothesize that C.philodice will do better in colder temperatures than C. eurytheme.

Comparing C. eurytheme and C.philodice Growth Rate in Different Temperatures- Introduction Perfect Paragraph

Insects use a variety of strategies to increase the fitness and survival of the species. Bet hedging, when an organism produces many progeny to increase their individual chances of survival, and Diapause, a quiescent period where development is suspended during adverse conditions (Roff, 1993), are two examples of these strategies. Colias philodice and Colias eurytheme are two sympatric, closely related species that utilize these strategies to survive. These species also occupy the same habitat and utilize the same food source and host plants. When two species depend on the same resources, one species will drive the other to extinction, yet these Pierid butterflies coexist. This study investigated the methods these species employ to coexist.

C. philodice and C. eurytheme can be distinguished by their wing color: C. philodice is yellow with blank band at the tips of the wings and C. eurytheme is light orange with black bands at the tip of the wings (Wang & Porter, 2004; Porter& Levin, 2007). It was hypothesized that these two species can interbreed randomly, allowing them to coexist. However, a study done by Taylor (1972) demonstrated that these species are sexually isolated under most natural conditions, which refutes this hypothesis. Another group studied host plant evolution in hybrid species and showed a clear difference in maturation strategies between C. eurytheme and C. philodice. Even though they grow at the same daily rate (DGR) C. philodice pupate a day earlier (with a lower body weight) than C.eurytheme. This life-history difference may provide a seasonally fluctuating fitness trade-off that could help explain the coexistence of these butterflies. (Porter & Levin, 2007). We propose that C. philodice completes an extra generation before entering diapause placing it one generation ahead of C. eurytheme, and thus giving the species an advantage. Since the extra generation will develop in cooler temperatures, we hypothesize that C.philodice will do better in colder temperatures than C. eurytheme.

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